Sensory Processing Disorder -SPD: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment


Our bodies are wired sensory input. Touch, (which includes temperature, texture, and pressure), taste, sound, sight, and smell the methods by which to discover the world from that moment.

When all systems work, we’ll experience feedback. For example, if you tremble from the cold and want to feel the heat, you can put a cosy sweater or wrap the wool blanket around your shoulders. Your body is likely to respond to relaxing, then an emotional relief and perhaps even a sigh.

The next time I felt cold, I remember what it was that was to remedy that feeling and finish it. If you accidentally put your hand on a hot surface, remove it immediately to prevent damage. If you happen to be in a position to repeat, you want to be attentive. Your body remembers.

When neurological complications, the relationship between the external environment can become confusing and maze.

What is Sensory Processing Disorder – SPD?

Dr Jean Ayres, Ph.D., OTR created the Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD), “is the state when sensory signals do not get organised, responsive responses. SPD Foundation Research found that 1 in every 20 children’s symptoms are sensed by sensory processing disorder that is significant to affect their ability to participate in everyday life fully.SPD was not yet known as the diagnosis of DSM-V. 
There are specialists and family members who advocate indicating that treatment is likely to cover the insurance. 
One involves Lucy Jane Miller, Ph.D., OTR, author of Sensational Kids: Hope and Helping Children Sensory Processing Disorder. He and other professionals, we recommend early diagnosis and treatment. 
This is usually identified in childhood; estimated to be a minimum of one in every 20. Children in the United States have SPD. 
There are adults who have been diagnosed. In general, the signs of inadequate sensory development are misinterpreted.
Assessments by occupational therapists specialising in sensory integration reveal that many children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and anxiety disorders are hypersensitive to touch.
 A study of 2410 children previously diagnosed with TPS or ADHD found that 60% of children suffered from both disorders and another study maintains that at least 1 in 20 children suffers from TPS.

Groups of People Experience Sensory Processing Disorder

 Infants born prematurely. More and more premature infants survive today. These children come to the world with a hypersensitive nervous system and multiple theological problems. Parents need to learn how to give their child the sensory experiences they need to optimise their development.

Autistic Children   (Diffuse Anesthetic Disorder or Autistic Disorder Spectrum are terms that mean autism) Severe difficulties in sensory processing are a feature of the disorder. Autistic children are looking for unusual amounts of specific stimuli and are overly sensitive to other stimuli. Improving sensory processing leads these children to more effective social transactions.

Children with learning disabilities. Many researchers show that the majority of children with learning disabilities, although having ordinary intelligence, are likely to have problems with sensory integration. Early Sensory Interference can improve this function by reducing its probability of school failure.

People with brain damage. Trauma to the brain after an accident can
have an impact on sensory function. These people need treatment that
will lead them to recover the lost senses better. 

Symptoms of Sensory Processing Disorder

Children who have this problem cannot adequately process sensory stimuli from the outside world and may have trouble interpreting information from one or more senses. The symptoms will vary tremendously from one to another and may include:

Behavioural symptoms:

  • Difficulties to calm down after exercise or being upset
  • Refusing to eat certain foods due to textures.
  • Hypersensitive to certain fabrics.
  • Just wear soft clothes or without labels.
  • He does not like to dirty his hands.
  • Does not participate in creative games.
  • Lack of variety in what he does: he can watch the same TV show over and over again.
  • An overdose of sounds, especially hair dryers, washing machines or sirens.
  • Too sensitive to odours, strong or mild.
  • Have challenges with certain movements, such as swinging, sliding or going downstairs.
  • Watch or listen to background noises that others can not.
  • Dangerous behaviours

Physical symptoms

  • Have a strange postureClumsiness.Poor balanceDelay in fine motor control, ch as handwriting challenges.
  • Delayed gross motor development.
  • Deficiencies in sleep and eating patterns.
  • Be in constant movement.
  • Jumps and turns excessively.
  • Fatigue.
  • Poor coordination.
  • It can fall often.
  • High pain tolerance

Psychosocial Symptoms

  • A decrease in the ability to interact with colleagues.
  • It can be very close to others.
  • Social isolation. (Article required)
  • Depression.
  • Anxiety.
  • Aggression. (Article required)
  • Fearful of the crowds.
  • Avoid standing in large groups.


Causes of Sensory Processing Disorder

In the prevailing view, the purpose of the SPD is still unknown, although researchers spent a lot of time knowing more about the condition. Some possible reasons may be SPD:

Genetic: Children born to adults who have an autistic spectrum may be more likely to develop sensory processing disorder. Furthermore, children with Asperger’s syndrome or autism are at higher risk of developing SPD. Boys are more likely than girls to SPD.

Types of Sensory Processing Disorder

Sensory Modulation Disorder

Our brain can regulate the entrance of our sensory system, our brain can assimilate the things we see, feel, hear, smell and taste, and then we decide what is essential and what is not.

When the sensory modulation works appropriately, we can maintain eye contact with a friend while people walk by, disconnect from the feeling of labels and seams on our clothes throughout the day and ignore the sound of our co-workers talking. In the background, while we write a report.

Sometimes, the brain does not process these senses in the same way as others. Sensory modulation disorder occurs when the brain over a response to sensory information, responds to information or seeks stimulation.

Disorder of Sensory Discrimination

It is the ability to understand parts of the world around you based on a single sense; this allows you to search your bag and look for your phone only with the touch, or guess what flavours of candy you are eating without looking at the colours.

A person with a sensory discrimination disorder has difficulty understanding what is seen, heard, felt, tasted and smelled using one-way information, will have to take extra time to process their experience, or use another sense to help them.

A child will have difficulty doing many things that others can do quickly, which can cause low self-esteem as he grows up.


It is a common disorder that affects fine and gross motor coordination in children and adults and can also affect speech. It is a lifelong condition, formally recognised by international organisations, including the World Health Organization.

A child with dyspraxia will have difficulty planning and execute motor tasks, can break things accidentally and struggle with activities such as sports. On many occasions, she is seen as clumsy and can, therefore, try to hide her poor motor skills with verbalisation or sedentary activities.

Postural disorder

A person with good postural control can use their body to push, pull and resist strength, these necessary skills are, at some level, necessary for most motor tasks.

A person with the postural disorder will have difficulty stabilising their body for specific activities, including sports, taking a box from a high shelf or preparing for the impact of a gust of wind.

Coexisting disorders

Sensory processing disorder can occur with other types of disorders. The most common include:

  • Autism.
  • Asperger syndrome.
  • Hyperactive disorder and attention deficit.
  • Language disorders
  • Learning difficulties.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder.

Treatment for sensory processing disorder

Many families with an affected child find it difficult to get help; this is because this disorder is not a recognised medical diagnosis at this time. Despite the lack of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, occupational therapists often see and treat children and adults with sensory processing problems.

Treatment depends on the individual needs of a child, but in general, it involves helping children to perform better in activities they are not usually good at and helping them get used to things they can not tolerate.


  • Physiotherapy using a sensory integration approach.
  • Vision therapy to improve the eye’s motor skills for people who have trouble reading, get confused with traffic or write
  • Auditory therapy, which asks people with hearing problems to listen to a variety of frequencies and sound patterns to stimulate the brain while performing other motor tasks, such as walking on a balance beam.
  • Psychotherapy for people who have developed a mood or anxiety disorder due to SPD
  • Speech and language therapy

Some children who have managed to control symptoms with therapy may find that they need additional treatment as they get older and come to new challenges in life, going to college or working could trigger the onset of new symptoms, therapy, and additional counselling can help to re-establish control of symptoms as environments, and circumstances change.

Sensory Processing Disorder Checklist

Changes in lifestyle

These areas can give children an acoustic rest that can help them focus and return to learning. Here are some suggested strategies for children:

1. The hyperactive child: Have him carry the laundry basket, push the shopping cart or carry the grocery bags of the car.

2. The child is sensitive to touch:  Perform painting activities with your fingers on the kitchen table and let him draw on the walls of the bathtub with shaving cream.

3. The child with a poor sense of space and balance:  Swim, ride a horse and jump on a trampoline, everything helps.

For teens and adults who experience low stimulation, intense activities can help: running, swimming hard, jumping on a trampoline and martial arts. People who have easily overstimulated find relief in reading, including music, petting a cat, or working in the garden.

Sensory Processing Disorder: A Family Affair

Mothers of children who have difficulty in Processing Senses often say:

  • I do not like complaining that my toothbrush or hair comb is sick or washing my body.
  • If you give me a new side dish, a snack, I often get nauseous.
  • It is difficult to wrap my head by lying down or bowing my head.
  • I’m surprised or aggressive about rubbing or stroking.
  • I want to wear some unique clothes, or I want to be naked.
  • It is hard to withstand temperature changes, especially when it is hard to withstand sweating.
  • I frequently drop things or make things squishy.
  • I give power to my chin, and I shoot my finger, my back, my toy.
  • Putting a toilet seat on is hard.
  • Having a washing machine, visit, water, elevator and so on is fun.
  • Depending on the place, I am more excited or afraid than usual.
  • I am afraid of the sound of the dryer, the sound of the washing machine, and the sound of water coming down the toilet.
  • When people go to a lot of places, they mutter or humor.
  • I can not rest.
  • When I go to a new place, I go around without a break.
  • You look tired and tired easily.



The child often says,

  • It’s hard to resist getting in contact with other people. So I do not like to play in a lot of places, especially to hold hands and move or line.
  • I like to play alone at nap time and lunch time.
  • I often lean against other people.
  • I hate physical activity time.
  • It’s hard to see someone else’s eyes, or you can look at them on the contrary.
  • It is hard to write long or beautifully.
  • I do not know if it is what I say to others in many places.
  • The way I play with my friends is not fun, and I want to keep changing the rules.
  • The time to start or finish homework is getting longer or harder.


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