Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) Signs, Symptoms and Diagnosis

What is Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD)?

The symptoms of active neuronal damage are quite similar to those of active neuronal disease. Symptoms of active neuronal damage are also divided into multiple types.

The neurology specialists give specific symptoms and treatments. Symptoms of active neuronal damage are classified into the following conditions. An active neuronal disease is the screening of spinal cord anterior horn cells and brain stem cell nucleus as well as cerebral cortical pyramidal cells.

Symptoms and signs

It is characterized by periodic recurrent and highly stereotypical limb movements during sleep. These activities are common in the lower extremities, with episodic contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle. It is characterized by a rhythmic extension of the big toe, a dorsiflexion from the calf joint, and occasional partial flexion of the knee and hip joints.

The incidence of periodic limb dyskinesia in the elderly population is as high as 20% to 60%. It is common for the calf anterior muscle to contract, the big toe to rhythmically stretch, and occasionally the knee and hip flexion. These actions can occur once every 20 to 40 seconds, each time lasting for 0.5 to 5 seconds, at least three times in a row. Severe dyskinesia often causes the patient to wake up.

Medication treatment

The treatment of periodic leg movements and restless leg syndrome can be divided into two types: drug therapy and non-drug therapy. Drug therapy includes sedatives, dopamine drugs, antiepileptic drugs, opioid drugs, and sympathetic nerve stimulants. Non-pharmaceutical treatments include adjustments to sleep habits, avoiding irritating foods such as caffeine or samovar, cognitive behavioral therapy, electrical stimulation, hot water, massage, and injection of vascular sclerosing agents.

Dietary care

Should be light, mainly eat fruits and vegetables, a reasonable mix of meals, pay attention to adequate nutrition.
Avoid smoking alcohol and avoid spicily. Avoid greasy alcohol and tobacco. Avoid eating cold food.

Pathological cause

The cause of the disease is still unclear. May be caused by lesions or autonomic dysfunction in the central nervous system of the brain. It has a common pathophysiological basis with restless legs syndrome.

Disease diagnosis

(1) sedation can not be a long-term use of anti-psychotic drugs and anti-disease drugs, and sometimes even a small amount of use can occur, patients often complain of their anxiety, legs and feet can not land, serious patients often stand repeatedly, back and forth Walking, the symptoms are more pronounced at night than during the day. Use anti-anxiety treatment is effective.

(2) Restless legs syndrome, a foreign survey shows that the prevalence rate is 1% to 10% of the total population, and the prevalence rate in China is estimated to be around 1.2% to 5%, which is more common in middle-aged and elderly people. The main manifestation of this disease is an abnormal feeling that is difficult to describe in the lower extremities. Patients often reflect tingling, burning or itching in the bone marrow of the two legs, and often feel comfortable after walking or kicking the ground. . In severe cases, getting up and walking can only ease, resulting in a bad night break.

(3) painful leg and moving toes pain in the lower limbs and feet, accompanied by discomfort, characteristic involuntary movement of the toes, one limb or both limbs can appear, the lower limbs of this patient Abnormal pain can occur and can often persist.

The involuntary movement of the lower limbs is mainly manifested by the flexion of the toes and the internal and external rotation, the flexion and extension of the foot joints, and the nature and characteristics of the pain of restless leg syndrome. Common in heel pain, low back pain, sciatica and other diseases of the medulla and nerve endings.

(4) Acroparesthesia numbness, acupuncture-like pain in the fingers and fingers during nighttime sleep, often awakened by pain. Adult women are more common. Occurs at the end of the lower limbs.

Inspection Method

Due to the advancement of sleep research, medical personnel has made great progress in understanding the pathology and etiology of sleep disorders. Brainwave records and electrical and physiological records of other body parts can assist physicians in understanding the patient’s sleep physiology dynamics to complement clinical assessment deficiencies.

A number of sleep electrograms, in addition to recording the brainwave changes of the patient’s nighttime sleep, including the synchronization of the heartbeat, respiration, blood gas concentration, limb activity, and sometimes the gastrointestinal motility and the pH of the esophagus, or It is a sexual function test for night erection. However, the need to include several tests must also depend on their clinical diagnosis.