Is Liver Cirrhosis Transferable?

When it comes to liver disease such as cirrhosis, people who abuse alcohol unwittingly come to mind. And this is quite logical because most often the disease affects them. Statistics show that at least 80% of patients with cirrhosis are experienced alcoholics. However, 20% of people who have received this disease in a different way remain. This group includes patients with disorders of the gallbladder, hepatitis, genetic abnormalities, drug or chemical poisoning. Therefore, the question of how cirrhosis of the liver is transmitted – through inheritance or viral infection – is relevant for all sectors of society.

Features and symptoms of the disease

Cirrhosis is a severe form of inflammation of cells that can develop in the liver and other organs. Transforming a healthy organ into fibrous tissue, this disease disrupts the body and leads to death.

As a result of the disease, leading to cell death, the liver no longer copes with the filtration of harmful substances that accumulate in the blood. Reaching a critical mass, toxins poison the body, leading to irreversible changes.

Modern medicine is not able to cure cirrhosis. But this does not mean that the disease can not be curbed. Eliminating the pathogen, observing the correct diet and undergoing regular courses of treatment, the patient can live a long life.

The most common symptoms of the disease are:

  • swelling of the lower extremities, swelling of the abdominal cavity;
  • stone formation and impaired pigment metabolism in the gallbladder;
  • yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes due to bile entering the blood;
  • dark urine;
  • pruritus;
  • slow blood clotting;
  • memory impairment, impaired thinking, and mental disorders;
  • increase and rupture of the esophagus internal veins.

Methods of infection with cirrhosis

The inflammation of the cells themselves and their subsequent die-off is not contagious. But what was the root cause of the disease may be viral, and the causative agent of inflammation may well be transmitted from person to person.

Diseases such as hemochromatosis, tuberculosis, parasitic invasions, syphilis, echinococcosis, various types of hepatitis, blood flux and other infections can trigger the development of cirrhosis.

Hereditary forms

It is not uncommon for a disease to develop as a result of a genetic predisposition. If at least two cases of the disease can be identified in the nearest pedigree, the possibility of cirrhosis increases significantly. Patients with cystic fibrosis should pay special attention to the liver. Violating the internal structure of some proteins, it complicates the work of the exocrine glands.

Also, the cause of cirrhosis may be increased copper. Due to Wilson’s disease – Konovalov, it accumulates in the liver cells, significantly weakening it and interfering with normal functioning.

DNA

Hemochromatosis carries an even greater danger. He, like the above-described disease, is characterized by the accumulation of metal in liver cells with the only difference that iron is not a harmful substance, but copper. Its level is so higher than usual, which leads to severe complications and weakening of the body.

If the immediate family suffered these diseases, then you should seriously think about your health. Experts recommend undergoing regular examinations to identify various anomalies. Often a symptom of a serious illness may be a simple malaise, which is usually not paid attention.

Parasites

Liver cirrhosis may also be parasitic and result from echinococcosis, which is carried by pets. In addition, the eggs of these parasites can be on products washed with unfiltered water.

This does not mean that you should avoid contact with animals and contact with water from the tap. Just need to carefully monitor the hygiene of the dog and the quality of food consumed. Otherwise, the active development of parasites can provoke biliary cirrhosis.

Fans of rest in African and Asian countries should be wary of the blood flux living in lakes and rivers. It enters the body through the skin and, developing to an adult in blood vessels close to the liver, gradually destroys it, causing cell death. Infected in this case becomes the distributor of the parasite, sending eggs to the other reservoirs along with feces and urine.

Infections and viruses

The causative agent of cirrhosis can be the hepatitis virus, the most dangerous of which is hepatitis B. Tattoo and piercing workshops and underground hospitals are a common site of infection. This virus is dangerous for its survivability in the environment and the need for more thorough disinfection. Most people are vaccinated against hepatitis B in childhood.

But hepatitis C is not dangerous, as it is a weak form of the disease, for the transmission of which requires prolonged contact with the blood of an infected person. The virus is destroyed by simple boiling and elemental disinfection, and also not able to be outside the carrier. Most often, hepatitis C lives in beauty salons, where care is taken to disinfect instruments. In addition, the disease can be transmitted through blood transfusion or from mother to child at birth.

Illustration of a hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis D can only develop in a patient infected with hepatitis B. In other cases; there is no reason to fear it. Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive measure.

The causative agent of cirrhosis can also be an extremely contagious disease known as syphilis. Most often this happens with children in the first month of life.

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is considered one of the most specific provocateurs of cirrhosis. Hitting the liver cells, it stimulates the inflammatory process for a long time, the end of which can be cell death.

Disease detection

The main danger of cirrhosis lies in the difficulty of diagnosing it at an early stage. Regular examinations by specialists are the only way to prevent the development of the disease.

To identify the disease using the results of blood and urine tests, as well as examinations: ultrasound, magnetic resonance and computed tomography.

Cirrhosis is an unpleasant and dangerous disease that cannot be cured completely. There are no ways to protect it from 100%. But if you follow certain rules, pay attention to disinfection and hygiene, visit proven institutions and regularly undergo a medical examination, you can shine the risk of infection to a minimum.

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How is cirrhosis of the liver transmitted?

So, how is cirrhosis of the liver transmitted?

  1. Liver Infection with hepatitis viruses

    Cirrhosis of the liver is not contagious to others and is not transmitted by itself from person to person. This disease is a consequence of liver damage – the death of liver cells under the influence of viruses, parasites, toxins, alcohol, unbalanced nutrition, attack of liver cells with their immune cells, improper metabolism, liver and cardiovascular diseases, biliary system.

  2. But the causative disease, if it is infectious (cytomegalovirus infection, hepatitis D, B, C viruses), can be transmitted from a patient with cirrhosis to a healthy person.
  3. Having infected with a patient with cirrhosis such an infectious disease, a person becomes likely to get cirrhosis too.
  4. Prevention consists of determining the causative disease in a patient with cirrhosis. And if it is an infectious disease, personal hygiene must be observed (use your towel, toothbrush, razor), and a healthy spouse must be vaccinated against viral hepatitis B. This vaccine guarantees 100% protection against infection with the hepatitis B virus. But does not protect from hepatitis C.

Consider the first group – chronic viral hepatitis. If the primary cause of liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis D, B, C of viral etiology, which are transmitted through blood and other body fluids, then it can be conditionally considered that such cirrhosis is “contagious.”

The time of development of cirrhosis depends on the type of hepatitis virus, on the state of human immunity, alcohol use (accelerates the development of cirrhosis) and the presence or absence of other complicating associated diseases.

Hepatitis B virus infection

Hepatitis B virus can be infected by:

  • unprotected intercourse (without a condom);
  • through insufficiently well-disinfected surgical instruments during the rehabilitation of the oral cavity in dentistry, small and large surgical operations;
  • in tattoo – salons through untreated or poorly processed tools and accessories;
  • with manicure and pedicure – through poorly decontaminated nippers and scissors;

It is worth noting that all those who provide tattoo, manicure and pedicure services, dental, small and large surgeries, must process the instruments by generally accepted standards, in a hot box or autoclave, or use one-time tools;

  • from mother to baby with natural childbirth or cesarean section;
  • when using a razor and other personal hygiene items of an infected person in which blood can remain;
  • when using a single syringe needle in a group of people, for example, drug addicts;
  • with blood transfusions.

In Russia, the spread of viral hepatitis B, there is a tendency to increase. There are 300-400 million people infected with this virus in the world, and in Russia, they are infected with 7% of the total population.

Hepatitis B virus is extremely stable in the environment.

This virus does not die when treated with various strong disinfectants. You can inactivate it only when autoclaving or using tepid sterilization, warming up to 60 degrees for 10 hours and boiling for an hour.

It suffices to hit a small part of the blood drop on the wound surface, and infection occurs. Hepatitis B virus is also found in the patient’s saliva, urine, milk, tears, and feces.

But, fortunately, this virus cannot penetrate the skin and mucous membranes if they are not damaged and there are no wounds or cracks on them.

Therefore, domestic infection is almost impossible, except for those cases when contact of infected blood occurs with an open wound of a healthy person (when treating abrasions and injuries in children, for example).

Infected people develop acute viral hepatitis, which can result in:

  • full recovery with the formation of immunity against the hepatitis B virus (as with vaccination);
  • or go into a chronic course.

Chronically flowing hepatitis B ends with cirrhosis of the liver in 10–20%, depending on the activity of the disease.

Liver cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus is less stable in the environment, is destroyed by boiling for 2 minutes, by washing with water at 60 degrees for 30 minutes, and is also inactivated by chlorine-containing disinfectants.

Ways of transmission of the virus are the same as with hepatitis B. The predominant mechanism of transmission of the virus C is parenteral and hematogenous: through blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and the use of intravenous drugs (using one syringe per group of people). The probability of infecting a healthy partner with a virus during sexual intercourse is 4%. Transmission of the virus from an infected mother to the baby during vaginal delivery is possible; the probability is no more than 5%.

Acute viral hepatitis C enters the chronic form of the disease in 80%, and chronic viral hepatitis C ends with cirrhosis in 20% of cases.

Accelerates the process of transition of viral hepatitis to cirrhosis of the liver: the use of alcohol-containing beverages, children and old age.

Important! When alcohol is consumed, liver cirrhosis develops in a patient infected with the hepatitis C virus after 5–8 years.

Viral hepatitis D

The condition for the activation of the hepatitis D virus in the human body is the presence of the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis D develops with simultaneous infection of the patient with the B and D virus or with a chronic carrier of the virus B. Preferred routes of transmission are sexual and hematogenous.

Liver cirrhosis caused by cytomegalovirus hepatitis.

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis is a generalized form of cytomegalovirus infection, occurs in people with low immunity: in children, newborns, the elderly, people receiving immunomodulatory therapy and people with HIV infection.

Cytomegalovirus is detected in blood, saliva, vaginal secretions, semen, feces, urine, tears of an infected person. Transmission paths are very diverse: infection from a sick person is transmitted through the airborne droplet, contact (through household items) path, through the placenta from mother to fetus and during childbirth.

All segments of the population are susceptible, but in people with good immunity, the infection is asymptomatic.

Chronic cytomegalovirus hepatitis ends with cirrhosis of the liver in approximately 30% of patients.

Parasitosis

This is a group of diseases caused by protozoa.

Parasitosis rarely causes cirrhosis.

Is cirrhosis caused by parasitic diseases transmitted? The answer is no; it is not transmitted. These parasitic diseases can only be ache if personal hygiene is not followed. For example, it is possible to become infected with echinococcosis by eating vegetables and berries, poorly washed and feces-free dogs, wolves, and drinking water from open reservoirs.

Toxoplasmosis is also not transmitted between people; this disease can be achieved by consuming poorly heat-treated meat or by swallowing contaminated food with cat feces, sand, which contain Toxoplasma oocysts.

Brucellosis can become infected when contaminated milk, poorly boiled and roasted meat is used in food when it comes into contact with infected animals (infection by hands in the oral mucosa). Infection with opisthorchosis is possible when eating underdone or raw fish with opistorch metachircariae.

Conclusion

Thus, cirrhosis is not transmitted from person to person, and only the cause of cirrhosis – viral hepatitis – can be transmitted.

To prevent infection with viral hepatitis from a patient with cirrhosis of the liver (if viral hepatitis is the cause of cirrhosis), it is necessary:

  1. A healthy spouse should always be vaccinated against hepatitis B.
  2. When having sex with an infected hepatitis virus, condoms should be used.
  3. When treating a family member’s wound, you must use gloves and tape the wound surface with a plaster.
  4. Use only your toothbrush, shaving accessories, scissors for the manicure and other tools in which a piece of blood can remain.
  5. All family members of a sick person are recommended to be examined and vaccinated against hepatitis B.

General information and symptoms

Cirrhosis develops as a complication of inflammation of the tissue of the liver or another organ. Due to the inflammatory process, the liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Gradually, organs are formed on the organ. The area of rebirth increases, especially in the absence of necessary treatment and diet. The volume of liver tissue is reduced, and the body cannot fully function, which provokes liver failure. The body is not properly cleared of toxins, intoxication develops, which negatively affects the state of all organ systems.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis are:

  • Ascites As a result of the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum, the legs become swollen.
  • The development of gallstone disease as a result of a failure in the metabolism of bile pigments.
  • Jaundice. With the penetration of bile into the blood of the patient the sclera turns yellow, the skin, the urine becomes dark.
  • Itching. Occurs due to intoxication.
  • Blood clotting disorder. The affected liver does not fully release the substances necessary for normal blood clotting, which is why wounds and scratches bleed longer.
  • Mental disorders. Toxins that are not excreted by the liver from the body, with the bloodstream enter all organs, including the brain, which leads to memory impairment of the patient, impaired thinking, various mental disorders.
  • Internal bleeding. Due to a malfunction of the liver, blood flows to the heart through the veins of the esophagus, which, as a result of a strong load, expand and rupture.

Causes of cirrhosis and how it is transmitted

Cirrhosis of the liver cannot be completely cured, however, with proper treatment and diet, the patient will be able to live a full life.Excessive alcohol consumption will sooner or later lead to the destruction of the liver.

This disease develops not only because of excessive alcohol consumption and malnutrition. Often its occurrence provokes illnesses that can be infected from a sick person. As a result, cirrhosis will develop in a person who leads a healthy lifestyle. To avoid this, you need to know how this dangerous pathology is transmitted and what are its causes.

Hereditary cirrhosis

It is said that cirrhosis is hereditary when pathologies transmitted from parents to children lead to its occurrence. In this case, the sick person is not dangerous to others, and an outside person cannot get from him. If someone in the family suffered from cirrhosis of the liver, it is worth to be examined. At the initial stages, this disease does not manifest itself, and timely diagnosis contributes to effective treatment and prevents complications.

There are such pathologies that are inherited and lead to cirrhosis:

  • Cystic fibrosis. The gene that causes the deformation of the protein structure, leading to metabolic disorders and affects the liver tissue, is inherited.
  • Wilson-Konovalov disease. It is characterized by the accumulation of copper in hepatocytes and intoxication.
  • Hemochromatosis. The accumulation of iron in hepatocytes.
  • Α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Pathology disrupts the lungs, provokes the degeneration of liver tissue.

Parasite infestation

Liver cirrhosis causes infection by such parasites:

Roundworm. Infection by eating contaminated food. With the bloodstream, the parasite enters the liver, provokes purulent processes. Alveolar Echinococcus. Get into the body through contaminated water and food. They affect liver tissue, allow metastases, having an adverse effect on the respiratory and nervous system.

  • Lamblia Get into the body while disregarding the rules of hygiene. The parasite leads to dystrophy of liver cells, inflammatory process.
  • Flukes. Infection occurs by eating infected, improperly cooked fish while swimming in an infected body of water. The parasite overlaps the bile ducts.
  • Schistosomes. Infection through the skin through contact with contaminated water. Leads to chronic hepatitis.

Infections and viruses

Cirrhosis develops as a result of the defeat of the body by such viruses and infections:

Viral hepatitis “B.” Infection through contact with the blood of an infected person.

  • Hepatitis C Penetrates the body through persistent contact with the blood of an infected person, for example, using non-sterile instruments in dentistry, tattoo parlor, using non-sterile syringes.
  • Hepatitis “D.” This virus develops in the body in the event of a primary infection with hepatitis “B.”
  • Syphilis. Venereal disease.
  • Brucellosis. Infection transmitted from animals.
  • Tuberculosis. It is transmitted by airborne droplets. It develops not only in the lungs but also in the liver.

Can I get cirrhosis of the liver from others?

Cirrhosis of the liver – the disease is not contagious. Contagious diseases are provoking this disease.

By itself, cirrhosis is not contagious. It is impossible to get sick with this disease due to contact with a person suffering from cirrhosis. However, there is a risk of infection by pathology leading to liver cell damage and the occurrence of cirrhosis. If a person develops this disease as a result of hepatitis or the effect on the body of parasites, it is dangerous for people around, especially if the cause of his illness is unknown and treatment is not carried out.

What to do?

If symptoms occur that indicate liver disease, such as pain or heaviness in the right hypochondrium, yellowness of the skin, itching, nausea, etc., you should immediately go to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment. It is worth remembering that any disease identified at the initial stage of development is much faster and easier to treat than the chronic form, which led to serious damage to the body.

Features of the disease

Cirrhosis of any organ is the gradual death of its cells. And so much so that it catastrophically decreases, as balzakovskaya shagreen leather. Instead of dead cells, abnormal, useless cells develop. Scar tissue forms from them, which, expanding, squeezes blood vessels, and entire areas of the diseased organ die.

Of course, the normal operation of such a body is out of the question. But its inactivity causes significant failures in the work of all organs, and the organism as a whole is on the verge of death.

According to medical statistics, judging by the first signs of cirrhosis, in 50% of cases, it is not entirely cured of viral hepatitis, most often hepatitis C. Much less often, it occurs due to poisoning with antibiotics, fluoride or arsenic.

For the primary symptoms determine the form in which it occurs. When replacing massively dying liver cells with rough scar tissue, a diagnosis is made: postnecrotic cirrhosis. If the blood supply to the liver is blocked – portal cirrhosis. And if out of it stops the flow of bile – biliary cirrhosis. The signs of each of these forms of the disease have some differences.

Primary symptoms

General characteristics: there are pains in the right hypochondrium, the liver is enlarged, because of this the abdomen is swollen. There is a weakness, loss of appetite, decreases performance. The sexual desire, an erection weaken. The painful belching, constant feeling of bitterness in a mouth, nausea, and even vomiting do not give rest.

Since such symptoms also occur in gastritis, gastric ulcers, gallstones, one or two of them still do not give reason to suspect liver cirrhosis. Its presence can be judged only by a set of signs that should appear for a very long time.

In the postnecrotic form of cirrhosis, jaundice always appears, having an imperishable character. Expanded veins appear on the peritoneum; their drawing can start from the navel and concerned about joint and muscle pain. The enlarged lymph nodes are palpable.

The first signs of portal cirrhosis are almost the same as for hepatitis. As the disease progresses, insomnia, fatigue, and anxiety and suspiciousness of the patient increase. After eating, physical effort, pain in the liver. The veins in the abdomen are also swollen. Muscles begin to gradually “melt.” Vascular “asterisks” appear on the skin. But jaundice may not be.

Especially increases the liver with the biliary form of the disease. Pain in the muscles and joints is also disturbing. Characteristic sign: gums often begin to bleed, stomach or intestinal bleeding appears. May keep fever. Often cirrhosis is accompanied by pneumonia.

Also, with all forms of the disease can become less hair in the armpits, pubic. Sometimes itchy skin. Of course, allergy has nothing to do with it – it is a reaction to an excess of bile acids in the blood. Fatty foods usually cause violent diarrhea. In women, the menstrual cycle often changes, the mammary glands increase.

A person can lose weight rapidly. Especially lose weight face and arms, and his legs at the same time swell. Swelling can and language. But the most common symptom of cirrhosis of the liver is deathly yellowish or bronze-colored skin, which, moreover, is flaky.

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Cirrhosis of the liver. How not to die from liver disease

Release March 25, 2011

The liver is silent and patient. The fact that she suffers, the liver shows when there is no more strength.

The liver is an amazing organ . Neither the heart, nor the lungs, nor the kidneys can catch up with it by the number and complexity of the work performed. The liver performs 300 functions, but the most important neutralizing. The liver removes all toxic substances. That enter our body.

The liver is the only organ that can regenerate. When a person has a fatty liver disease, he can give up fatty, salty, alcohol and canned foods for 3 months; the liver will be healthy.

Liver Enemies :

1. Hepatitis B and C viruses. Once in the liver, hepatitis viruses destroy liver cells and cause cirrhosis . Hepatitis B is transmitted sexually . You can also get infected through someone else’s razor, toothbrush, etc.

2. Alcohol . Once in the body, alcohol kills the membranes of the liver cells. As a result, scars are formed. Cirrhosis of the liver begins. Even in small doses, alcohol is bad for the health of the liver.

3. Fatty food. The liver recognizes fat as a toxic substance. Fat kills liver cells and eventually develops fatty liver disease.

Symptoms of liver damage :

With liver disease, a person becomes weak and unwell.

The liver is silent and patient. The fact that she suffers, the liver shows when there is no more strength.

The occurrence of incomprehensible bruises on the skin indicates liver damage.

Bruises on the skin that were not received during the injury may indicate liver disease.

Early diagnosis of liver disease

It is necessary to pass a blood test for liver enzymes; this will allow seeing the disease at the very early stage of its development.

How to prevent liver disease:

1. Hepatitis B is infected through sexual contact, so you need to use condoms. Also, sources of infection can be someone else’s razor, toothbrush, etc.

2. Do not get carried away with fatty foods. People whose liver is not healthy should also give up salty foods and canned food.

3. Refusal of alcoholic beverages.

4. To be vaccinated against hepatitis B, which will prevent from cirrhosis of the liver.

Cirrhosis of the liver

Cirrhosis, Symptoms of cirrhosis. Help with cirrhosis of the liver.

Cirrhosis in Greek means orange. Indeed, in this severe chronic disease, the liver tissue changes its color to orange. But if only the color changed! The most dangerous thing in cirrhosis is that healthy liver tissue is gradually being replaced by fibrous tissue. That is, cells that are unable to perform the basic functions of the liver cells, and this most important organ simply ceases to act.

Signs of liver cirrhosis:

First, you should reassure all readers. Just like that, out of the blue cirrhosis does not occur. Symptoms of cirrhosis can be expected in people who have undergone different types of hepatitis, in chronic alcoholics, in people suffering from bile duct obstruction. If someone from your family suffered from cirrhosis, then you should also take care of the liver. The predisposition to cirrhosis is inherited. Besides, cirrhosis can be caused by some infectious or parasitic diseases.

If for a long time you feel unwell, feel weak, lose weight, and at the same time you have discomfort in the liver, take a closer look at yourself. Perhaps, besides the symptoms described, you often have belching, and in the mouth constantly unpleasant bitter taste? And do not you think that the stomach seemed to pout? Periodically worried about the urge to vomit? These are the very first symptoms of cirrhosis.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that develops gradually. At the next stage of cirrhosis, symptoms such as yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes appear. But the palms acquire a specific bright red color. These so-called hepatic palms are a very characteristic symptom of cirrhosis of the liver or other severe liver damage. Next, on the body begin to appear spider veins. They cover the cheeks, torso, arms. If at this stage of the disease the doctor feels the liver of the patient, then it will be larger than normal, denser. On palpation, the patient may feel some pain, and maybe not. The representatives of the stronger sex may increase the mammary glands. Libido is greatly reduced in patients of both sexes. At this stage, the patient’s feces become discolored, and the urine, on the contrary, becomes dark brown.

Hepatitis B virus infection

Who gets hepatitis B more often?

Hepatitis B is most common in adults (the peak incidence occurs in the age groups of 20–49 years).

Reducing the incidence in children and adolescents in developed countries was achieved with the help of regular vaccination.
In the developing countries of Africa and Asia, the majority of people with hepatitis B become infected during childhood. At the same time, up to 10% of the total population can be infected with the hepatitis B virus.

Where can I get hepatitis B?

In places where people who inject drugs, in piercing and tattoo parlors, hairdressing salons (manicure, pedicure) gather.

Viral hepatitis C

One of the common causes of cirrhosis is hepatitis C. This is a chronic viral infectious disease.

The hepatitis C virus is transmitted by the hematogenous route, i.e., through the blood of an infected person. The transmission routes of this virus are as follows:

  • Transfusion (transfusion of blood and its components)
  • Through medical instruments (including in dental treatment, in nail salons)
  • Injection (when using intravenous drugs, as well as during injections, including cosmetic, non-sterile syringes)
  • Sexual (with unprotected sex)
  • Household (when using foreign razors, scissors, toothbrushes)
  • Vertical (from mother to child during childbirth)

So, there are quite a few ways to get infected with the hepatitis C virus. But for infection, you need a large amount of virus and prolonged contact. Therefore, the most common infection occurs during blood transfusions or drug addicts.

This is also explained by the fact that the virus is extremely unstable in the external environment, and is also easily destroyed by conventional methods of disinfection (boiling, chlorine, etc.). Thus, to exclude the possibility of infection, it is enough to follow the rules of personal hygiene and caution in choosing a medical facility, use a condom.

Viral hepatitis B

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted in the same ways as the hepatitis C virus: when it comes into contact with the blood of an infected person through various medical procedures, in tattoo shops, body piercings, in nail salons, during blood transfusion, during surgical interventions, and when drugs are used intravenously and from mother to child at birth.

However, the hepatitis B virus is much more stable in the external environment. It also cannot be destroyed by boiling, and the amount of virus required for infection is less than in the case of hepatitis C.

Currently, there is a vaccine against hepatitis B, which indirectly protects against another virus – hepatitis D. This vaccination is done in the maternity hospital. Adults have the opportunity to make it on their own and protect themselves and their loved ones from being infected with hepatitis B.

Viral hepatitis D

This type of hepatitis can become infected only if the body already has the hepatitis B virus. This is another reason why you should not refuse vaccination against viral hepatitis, unless, of course, there are contraindications.

Parasitic invasions

Schistosomiasis is one of the diseases that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. It is an infectious disease that is caused by blood-flukes parasites. These are worms belonging to the genus schistosom. Infection occurs through the skin upon contact with water, which contains the eggs of worms.

In humans, the larvae are transformed into adults that live in the blood vessels of various organs, including the liver. After the females lay their eggs, some of these eggs are excreted in feces and urine, re-enter water bodies, and the development cycle of the worm begins again.

Schistosomiasis is a predominantly tropical infection, i.e., they can become infected in countries of Africa, Indonesia, the Middle East, China, etc. When traveling to such countries need to be careful.

Echinococcosis can cause prolonged compression of the bile ducts and lead to the development of secondary biliary cirrhosis. Echinococcosis can be infected from domestic animals (dogs), parasite eggs are excreted in the feces of these animals.

If feces get into the reservoir, as well as useful plants, berries, vegetables, echinococcus infection can also occur.

Echinococcosis may persist for a long time and asymptomatically. The parasite infects many organs, including the liver. Eggs get to the carrier through the mouth, develop into a larva in the intestine.

The larva lives in the human body and reaches the stage of a sexually mature individual. The larva, once in the organ with a blood stream, forms an echinococcal bladder, in which its transformation and further vital activity occur.

To reduce the risk of infection, you must follow the rules of personal hygiene, any berries, herbs, etc. Be sure to wash before use.

Liver tuberculosis

One of the rare causes of cirrhosis is tuberculosis. There are extrapulmonary forms of this disease, and one of them is liver tuberculosis. A specific inflammation develops in the liver, as is the case with lung tissue.

Prolonged existing damage can lead to cirrhosis. Infection with tuberculosis occurs through airborne droplets: when sneezing, coughing an infected person.

Other diseases

In addition, cirrhosis of the liver can be caused by brucellosis, syphilis (the latter infection can cause cirrhosis only in children under 1 month).

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Root causes of transmission

There are several causes of cirrhosis and transmitted to people. These are parasitic invasions, hepatitis of viral nature, infectious diseases:

  • Echinococcosis. The phenomenon is dangerous for dog owners, as this disease is transmitted through them. Parasitic eggs are excreted in the feces of animals, can get on live plants, food, water, contributing to their infection. The carrier “picks up” the infection in an oral way. After infection in a person for a long time there are no manifestations. But sooner or later, echinococcosis still manifests itself, since the larva infects the intestines, develops to the stage of maturity and creates a bubble in the internal organ. Squeezes the bile ducts and leads to secondary cirrhosis. Prevention of infection consists in thorough washing of food products, hygiene;
  • Schistosomiasis. Invasion occurs due to worms from the genus schistosomes, which are blood flukes. The infection is transmitted through the skin during washing or another contact with contaminated water. The larvae of worms enter the human body and grow. They live in vessels of different internal organs. When breeding, the worms lay eggs, which are partially excreted with waste and continue the life cycle. It is often possible to get the infection only in “exotic” states – African, Middle Eastern.
  • Hepatitis B”. Hepatitis of this group is transmitted through direct contact with viral blood. Chances of infection in the tattoo parlors, manicure, places of medical care. Infection occurs when using drugs intravenously. The child is infected from the mother through inheritance. This virus shows high resistance. Vaccinations from groups “B” and “D” are still in the hospital;
  • “WITH”. Hepatitis in this category is a common cause of cirrhosis. The mode of transmission of the disease is hematogenous. You can become infected through unprotected sexual intercourse, objects of normal use (for example, toothbrushes, razors), blood transfusions, non-sterile syringes (for injections, drug taking), tools (manicure, medical), childbirth (the mother transmits the baby a virus at birth). However, infection occurs due to persistent contact with infected blood. Often occurs in addicts. The usual daily hygiene of the person, the use of disinfection destroy the unstable virus, not allowing it to enter the blood;
  • “D.” Hepatitis of this group is contagious only if there is already a “B” virus in human blood. The vaccination method is very useful in preventing infection.
  • Syphilis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases;
  • brucellosis is a zoonotic type of infection;
  • Tuberculosis is a common factor in the formation of cirrhosis. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets. It can also occur outside the lungs – in the liver. The resulting inflammation of the organ can lead to cirrhosis.

Is cirrhosis of the liver contagious?

For a person to develop cirrhosis, which affects the liver, this requires a pathogen. What triggers his appearance?

For others, cirrhosis itself does not represent any danger, since it is a consequence of the affected liver alcohol, parasites, toxins, improper food, and infections.

If the cause of the disease is an infection or a different type of hepatitis, then they can be transmitted to another person. When such infections get to a healthy person, then there is a high probability that he will have cirrhosis of the liver.

It is important for the patient to identify the cause of the pathology to take precautions and not infect another person. If a sick person has hepatitis, then his life partner must be vaccinated against the virus. There is a vaccine only for hepatitis B; the vaccine does not affect hepatitis C.

Given this, if anyone cares whether it is possible to get infected from a patient with hepatitis, which causes cirrhosis, the answer is unequivocal – yes.

How are people infected with hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B can enter the body in many ways, for example:

  • During unprotected sex,
  • In the dental office, through poorly developed instruments,
  • In the salons where tattoos are made,
  • During a manicure or pedicure,
  • During childbirth from mother to baby,
  • Using other people’s razors or personal care products,
  • With blood transfusions,
  • Through one needle, which was used by people.

Hepatitis B is very stable, so it can be killed by adhering to a particular technology. This virus can live for about a week, in the open air, even in a dried drop of blood or on clothing. For example, tools need to be boiled for an hour or processed using dry heat sterilization.

However, hepatitis B is not transmitted through saliva or touch. In other words, you can only become infected through blood.

If you drink alcohol with hepatitis, then there is a high probability that cirrhosis will begin to develop.

Hepatitis C

Compared with hepatitis B, hepatitis C is not sustainable in the environment. Ways of infection of this virus are the same as that of hepatitis B. Most often it is acquired by transfusing blood and using personal hygiene tools.

Hepatitis C has two stages – it is acute and chronic. If acute hepatitis is not treated for a long time, then it becomes chronic, as a result of which cirrhosis of the liver develops. Accelerate this process can be a bad way of life and drinking alcohol.

Hepatitis D and cytomegalovirus hepatitis

In general, hepatitis D is always present in the body with hepatitis B. They can become infected through unprotected sexual intercourse.

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis occurs in people with weak immunity. These include children, the elderly, and HIV-infected people. This type of hepatitis is very dangerous, as you can get it:

  • By airborne droplets
  • To inherit from the mother,
  • Through everyday objects
  • Sexually,
  • Through saliva
  • Through the blood.

Those with good immunity are not afraid of this type of hepatitis. When the body has chronic cytomegalovirus hepatitis, then surely it will cause cirrhosis of the liver.

Internal pests

It is the parasites that most often cause this terrible pathology of the liver. If the disease is caused by the presence of parasites in the body, then it is not transmitted in any way to other people. The reason for the appearance of pests is the lack of personal hygiene.

It is very important to wash your hands and all the products from which you want to cook. Do not drink water from an open pond. Moreover, carefully consider the meat before you buy it. Different spots in meat or its suspicious appearance may indicate the presence of parasites.

Fry meat and fish well, as they die at high temperatures. Teach yourself to wash all the ingredients with a solution of water, vinegar, and salt, and then the parasites will die.

Is cirrhosis of the liver transmitted?

From this information, we can conclude that in itself, cirrhosis of the liver cannot be transmitted to a healthy person. Only the reason for the occurrence of cirrhosis can be transmitted, most often – these are different types of hepatitis.

In order not to infect a healthy person with hepatitis, the patient must:

  • Give your healthy spouse a virus vaccine.
  • Always apply precautions when having sex. It is desirable that a sick person does not have many sexual partners.
  • If family members treat a patient’s wound, they need to be very careful and use gloves.
  • Have your personal hygiene products and do not allow others to use their brushes, razors and other personal items.
  • All family members should be screened to find out if they have hepatitis.

Do not start with the treatment of hepatitis, because it can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, which can not be cured. This pathology significantly reduces the life of a person and makes his life limited.

By adhering to all precautions, you protect yourself and your family from hepatitis. Watch for personal hygiene and treat food well so that parasites do not attack your liver. By detecting pests in time, you can get rid of them. After the examination, the doctor will prescribe a treatment for the destruction of parasites from the body.

How is cirrhosis transmitted and is it contagious?

By itself, cirrhosis of the liver to others is not contagious, but the pathologies that cause the formation of this disease can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one.

Methods of infection with cirrhosis

The emergence of the described pathology can be triggered by the penetration of viruses and parasites into the body. Also, infections and heredity play an important role in the possible formation of pathology.

Viral Hepatitis

According to statistics, the main cause of the development of the described pathology is the penetration of hepatitis C into the body. But another viral hepatitis is also dangerous: B, D, as well as cytomegalovirus. You can become infected in the following cases:

  • in the process of blood transfusion;
  • through poorly disinfected dental or cosmetic instrument;
  • as a result of injections with a non-sterile syringe (this situation is most common among drug addicts);
  • in the process of sexual intercourse without the use of contraceptives;
  • in case of using other people’s hygiene products (brush, razor, scissors);
  • during childbirth from mother to child.

To infect a person with hepatitis C, B or D, it is necessary for the virus to penetrate his blood, so most often the infection occurs through injections, droppers, invasive medical manipulations.

Hepatitis D without hepatitis B does not happen, because the virus D is not deprived of the opportunity to multiply on its own, it gives offspring only when paired with virus B. Cytomegalovirus enters the body with saliva.

Infectious diseases

The development of hepatic pathology can be triggered by the occurrence of the following infectious diseases:

  • Syphilis is a disease in which bone tissue, nerve fibers, and internal organs are affected. Transmission is carried out during unprotected intercourse, as well as during childbirth.
  • Brucellosis is an infection that affects the bones, joints, nervous and cardiovascular systems. It is transmitted during prolonged communication with infected animals.
  • Tuberculosis is a disease that affects the lungs, bones, joints, and intestines — transmission of infection by airborne droplets. Often the infection occurs through a kiss. In the initial stages (mild course), it is quite successfully treated.

And in this case, we must remember that it is not the cirrhosis that is dangerous, but the reason that caused it. Prevention of infection is the treatment of the underlying disease.

Heredity

There are some hereditary pathologies that can trigger the onset of cirrhosis, but they do not belong to the infectious form of the disease:

  • Wilson-Konovalov disease. The etiology of the disease is expressed in the fact that an excessive amount of copper accumulates in the liver cells. This causes intoxication, which can be accompanied by a feeling of nausea, gagging and general weakness.
  • Cystic fibrosis is a disease triggered by mutations of protein structures. The disease is considered to be the cause of poor metabolism; its course has a negative effect on the endocrine glands and liver cells.
  • Α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This is quite a serious hereditary disease that affects the lungs.
  • Hemochromatosis is similar to the pathology of Wilson-Konovalov, only in this case, the poison is iron.

Parasites in the body

In addition, the following types of parasitic forms can enter the body along with food and water to provoke the development of symptoms of cirrhosis:

  • Echinococcus. They penetrate the human body by drinking contaminated raw water. Their livelihoods provoke a deterioration of the liver tissue, problems arise in the functioning of the respiratory and nervous system.
  • Roundworm. After the parasite has entered the body, it is possible to form purulent processes.
  • Lamblia They provoke dystrophy of hepatic cells and the development of the inflammatory process.

Cirrhosis is not always caused by the abuse of alcohol. And the transmission of this disease is impossible; there is only the risk of primary infection with parasites, bacteria or viruses that provoke damage to the tissues of the liver.

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Nature of pathology

The liver is one of the main organs that perform many functions, such as cleaning the blood of toxins and other substances “unnecessary” to the body, the formation of bile, participation in blood clotting, and antibody synthesis. The liver also plays an important role in the synthesis of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and enzymes necessary for the proper course of various processes in the human body.

The progress of cirrhosis of the liver interferes with the functioning of the liver at the cellular level since each cell plays an important role in metabolic, detoxification and enzymatic processes. Cirrhosis rarely develops as an independent disease – most often it is a complication of other diseases: hepatitis, fatty liver, alcohol intoxication, drugs, and toxic chemicals.

At risk of developing cirrhosis are men over 40 years old, alcohol addicts, drug addicts, patients with hepatitis and other chronic liver diseases. Patients who take medication frequently or come into contact with toxic chemicals should be careful.

What provokes the development of cirrhosis:

  1. Hepatitis: viral, autoimmune, alcoholic, medicinal.
  2. Fatty hepatosis.
  3. Intoxication.
  4. Violation of the outflow of bile along the biliary tract.
  5. Sclerosing cholangitis.
  6. Hemochromatosis.
  7. Disruption of blood flow in the hepatic veins.
  8. Parasitic liver invasions.
  9. Wilson’s disease.

Cirrhosis often develops in patients with heart failure – blood accumulates in the vessels of the liver, which negatively affects the organ. In 20% of cases, it is not possible to establish the cause, then a diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis is made.

The mechanism of development of cirrhosis is closely related to its cause, but in general, the picture is similar to the development of chronic hepatitis. Dystrophic, viral or toxic damage of hepatocytes leads to inflammation, resulting in liver cells that are unable to fully function, die and are replaced by connective tissue.

At the same time, healthy cells begin to divide vigorously, so the body will be healthy areas surrounded by connective tissue, that is, the normal structure of the liver is disrupted, and false lobules are formed.

On ultrasound, a healthy organ has a fine-grained and homogeneous structure. A heterogeneous structure with irregular contours is a sign of organ failure, which can lead to cirrhosis. It is possible to suspect cirrhosis by ultrasound if the following changes are observed:

  • enlarged liver in size;
  • varicose veins;
  • heterogeneity of the parenchyma;
  • formation of regenerative nodes.

In cirrhotic lesions, hemodynamics in the hepatic artery increases, and the portal blood flow, on the contrary, slow down. The disease is often accompanied by an enlarged spleen, and during autoimmune processes, greatly enlarged regional nodes are observed. But, it should be remembered that ultrasound is not the most accurate diagnostic method – in 25% of cases there are errors in the diagnosis. Therefore, the most accurate way is considered a biopsy with histological examination of the material.

How fast is developing?

Cirrhosis in each patient proceeds differently and at different rates. It depends on many factors, and above all on lifestyle. Patients who frequently consume alcoholic beverages are in the group of patients in whom the disease proceeds very quickly. Biliary cirrhosis is also developing rapidly, but if the causes of these two processes are eliminated, then the organ can be partially restored and the pathological process suspended.

Of great importance in stopping the progression of cirrhosis are timely diagnosis and properly chosen treatment. If the disease is detected in the early stages and start taking drugs that clean the liver, you can reduce the burden on the body and prevent the death of hepatocytes. But, despite the fact that drug treatment allows you to extend the life of the patient, sooner or later he will have to go through all stages of the development of pathology.

Also, the rate of transition from one stage of the pathological process to another depends on the presence of complications. Many patients with cirrhosis of the liver develop effects such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. In the presence of such complications, the patient’s life is shortened by several years.

The most favorable prognosis for patients with compensated cirrhosis is more than 8 years. The third stage of the disease is characterized by the death of most hepatocytes, which leads not only to severe liver failure but also to other pathological conditions. In many patients, internal bleeding opens, the spleen increases and the whole body suffers.

Because of the danger of the disease, many are wondering whether it is possible to get cirrhosis from a sick person. Do not worry – cirrhosis is not contagious and is not transmitted to others. But, there are infectious diseases that lead to the development of liver damage, and the most common is viral hepatitis.

Also, syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, and parasitic diseases – giardiasis, opisthorchiasis, ascariasis, and other invasions can lead to hepatic impairment. If a patient is diagnosed with such diseases, then it is necessary to take precautions so as not to infect loved ones. Even if these diseases do not affect the liver, they can lead to other severe pathologies.

Liver cirrhosis can occur with some hereditary diseases: Wilson-Konovalov syndrome, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. With a hereditary predisposition to such diseases, one should be extremely careful and visit the attending physician more often.

Differences in women and men

Cirrhosis affects both women and men, but there are some differences in the development of the disease. Statistics show that the majority of patients are men who drink alcohol excessively. Also among drug addicts – the majority of drug addicts are male, so they often suffer from viral hepatitis, which leads to liver damage.

Considering hepatitis, it can be said that men are more often infected with them, but not only because of injecting drug use, but also because of indiscriminate sex. Women rarely become infected with hepatitis sexually.

Men are also more susceptible to the development of cardiac cirrhosis, that is, the destruction of the liver against the background of cardiovascular pathologies. The risk of developing cirrhosis on the background of heart failure or coronary disease in women is much lower.

If we consider biliary cirrhosis, then about 2/3 of the patients are female. Since the primary biliary damage of the liver is autoimmune, it is women who most often suffer from it. According to statistics, it is women after 25-30 years that are most susceptible to malfunctioning of the immune system.

The danger of the condition is that autoimmune disorders manifest themselves in the form of cholestasis or dyskinesia for a long time, but under the influence of negative factors rapidly turn into cirrhosis.

Other differences in cirrhosis in men and women:

  1. The female sex is more likely to suffer from complications such as varicose veins of the limbs, esophagus, intestines, and stomach.
  2. Men are more likely to suffer a decrease in libido.
  3. In women, there are changes like menstruation – discharge becomes more scarce or abundant.
  4. Female cirrhosis often begins with steatosis due to the peculiarities of the metabolism.
  5. An asymptomatic course of the disease is characteristic of the female.

Life expectancy does not depend on the gender of the patient, but experts note that hormonal changes in women and pregnancy can provoke the early development of the disease.

Clinical signs

Cirrhosis is very dangerous because it often, up to the development of a severe stage, is almost asymptomatic. Therefore it is often diagnosed when medicine is practically powerless. Recognizing liver pathologies is very difficult, here are the primary signs of the pre-cirrhotic state and the initial stage of the disease, to which many people do not pay attention:

  1. Weakness, fatigue.
  2. Irritability, aggressiveness.
  3. The appearance of bruises without reason.
  4. Increased bleeding gums, nosebleeds.
  5. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes.
  6. Pruritus
  7. The appearance of spider veins.
  8. Swelling of the limbs.
  9. Palmar erythema.
  10. I have decreased underarm hair.
  11. Dystrophy of skeletal muscles.

Often with cirrhosis, you can feel the enlargement of the liver and spleen in size, but usually, these signs are noticed by the doctor during the examination.

In the later stages of the disease, the following symptoms appear:

  1. Increase the abdomen in size.
  2. Respiratory impairment due to ascites.
  3. Enlarged vascular pattern, dilated veins.
  4. Weight loss
  5. Bouts of nausea.
  6. Pain in the right hypochondrium.
  7. Bitterness and dry mouth.
  8. Bleached stools, dark urine.

The appearance of such signs suggests that it is necessary as soon as possible to see a specialist for diagnosis. In addition to the examination and collection of anamnesis, various methods are included in the diagnosis:

  1. Blood tests, feces, and urine.
  2. Ultrasound of the liver and other organs.
  3. Liver biopsy.
  4. Endoscopy of the esophagus and intestines.
  5. Laparoscopic examination of the abdominal cavity.
  6. Scintigraphy
  7. CT and MRI.

It is very important that the results of the study be interpreted by a competent specialist, since various liver pathologies may give a similar clinical picture. And to cure cirrhosis, it is necessary not only to make a diagnosis but also to identify the cause of the disease.

The specifics of therapy

Treatment of cirrhosis, as well as other diseases, begins with the elimination of the cause of the disease. After all, if we do not exclude negative factors, then even the best treatment will not give the desired result. A patient with a primary diagnosis must be placed in a hospital in the hepatology department or infectious if the cause of cirrhosis is hepatitis or other infections, the patient may also be hospitalized in the intensive care unit or surgery, depending on the condition.

Whether or not to cure cirrhosis is the question by which each patient is asked. In the early and uncomplicated stages of the disease, recovery is possible if the patient complies with all recommendations of the attending physician. In the more severe stages of cirrhosis, treatment is aimed at stopping the pathological process and extending the patient’s life.

To cure cirrhosis, the combined effects of medication, physiotherapy, and in some cases folk remedies are necessary. It is very important for the patient to understand the seriousness of the disease and completely abandon bad habits and follow a therapeutic diet for life.

The main drugs for the treatment of cirrhosis:

  1. Enterosorbents.
  2. Enzymes
  3. Hepatoprotectors.
  4. Choleretic.
  5. Bile acids.
  6. Vitamins.

Depending on the cause of the disease, antiviral, antiparasitic, antibacterial or hormonal preparations may be prescribed. Kuprenil or its analogues may be prescribed to stop the growth of connective tissue. Immunosuppressants are necessary in autoimmune processes, but they are prescribed only after an exact identification of the cause of the pathology.

Treatment of cirrhosis can include blood transfusions or hemolysis to support the body and relieve the load on the liver. At the most severe stage of decompensation, it is impossible to restore the functioning of the liver and the only method of treatment is transplantation of a donor organ.

Patients in serious condition are constantly under the control of doctors. The patient is constantly measured the size of the body, the volume of the abdomen and conduct research analyzes. Constant monitoring is necessary because of the risk of complications: portal hypertension, ascites, and hepatic coma. The patient can be discharged only after the normalization of the condition, but he needs to be regularly shown to a specialist and undergo examinations to monitor the progression of the disease.

Complications and recommendations

Timely diagnosed cirrhosis of the liver, if the patient follows all the recommendations, usually proceeds without complications. But, the advanced form of the disease often leads to serious and irreversible consequences.

Possible complications of cirrhosis:

  • Ascites is a very dangerous condition in which fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity. This leads to an increase in abdominal pressure, bacterial peritonitis, respiratory and heart failure and impaired blood circulation.
  • Hepatorenal syndrome is a dysfunction of the liver in patients with portal hypertension. It is expressed by impaired blood flow and filtration in the kidneys and is characterized by a very unfavorable prognosis.
  • Encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs on the background of liver failure. Occurs due to toxic damage to the nervous system and is expressed as a decrease in intelligence, cognitive disorders, and personality changes. Often leads to hepatic coma.
  • Hepatic coma is the last stage of hepatic encephalopathy. Severe liver failure leads to severe brain dysfunction, brain edema, lack of reflexes and is the cause of death in more than 80% of patients.
  • Portal hypertension – is characterized by an increase in blood pressure in the portal vein. It leads to severe dyspeptic disorders, esophageal varices, ascites, and bleeding.

The prognosis of cirrhosis depends on many factors: the age and condition of the patient, the stage of the disease, the presence of complications, whether the patient adheres to the recommendations or not. With mild stages without complications, recovery occurs, but with complications, life expectancy is significantly reduced and amounts to seven years.

To increase the lifespan of cirrhosis, you need to know what can cause complications or worsen of the condition. What should be discarded:

  1. Alcohol – alcohol is extremely negative for the liver. Therefore, in the case of cirrhosis even low-alcohol drinks cannot be drunk.
  2. Smoking – nicotine adversely affects the blood vessels and the immune system of a person, so it is necessary to give up this bad habit.
  3. Physical activity – you can do only light sports, without lifting weights and not causing an increase in pressure in the abdominal cavity.
  4. Bath, sauna – in case of cirrhosis it is impossible to overheat, so as not to stimulate inflammation. Therefore, you can visit only a non-hot bath and sauna.

Patients with cirrhosis should monitor their health and try not to overwork. Rest is necessary for the body to gain strength to combat the disease. In some cases, when the disease does not allow you to engage in professional activities or limits the ability of self-care, the patient is given a disability status – the group and the term is set by a special commission.

Cirrhosis is a very dangerous and fairly common disease. It must begin to be treated as soon as a diagnosis is made. If the patient neglects the recommendations of the attending physician and does not follow the diet, the disease will progress rapidly and will reach a stage at which the changes will become irreversible.