Testosterone is a hormone that is present in both the male and the female body. If for men, an overabundance or lack of testosterone does not cause much discomfort, for women this fact leads to big problems. At the same time, the normal level of testosterone in the female body is much lower than that of men.Testosterone in the female body plays an important role.
First, the hormone affects the development of the ovaries. The maturation of the follicles directly depends on testosterone, and accordingly, all this affects fertility.
Secondly, testosterone is necessary for the development of bones and muscles, for the work of the sebaceous glands and bone marrow.
Thirdly, the hormone is responsible for a good mood. Fourth, the sexuality of a person and his sex life depend on the level of the hormone in the blood.
Fifth, the hormone is involved in protein synthesis, affects phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels, and also affects the cardiovascular system.
The main symptoms of the questionnaire to check how to increase testosterone levels?
Watch your own health is important to all. This rule applies not only to women who are concerned about beauty but also to men who pay less attention to their health.
But this does not mean that you have to regularly visit the doctor, you can check the level of testosterone in the blood at home.
There is a special questionnaire, it was specifically designed based on the first signs of a lack of testosterone. The results show what changes can occur if there is a change in hormone levels. The most common symptoms are fatigue, irritability, decreased sexual desire, etc.
Calculate the exact content of the hormone in the home is impossible, but there are certain symptoms that show that in.
Thanks to science, people have learned that hormones play a huge role in a person’s life – biologically active substances that affect physiological functions and metabolism.
Among many regulators of these processes, testosterone is of particular importance – a hormone that is a bright representative of androgens (steroid sex hormones), on which the quality of life of men depends.
To emphasize the importance of testosterone, it should be noted that this hormone has a positive effect on muscle growth, fat burning, metabolism, strengthens bone tissue, protects against cardiovascular diseases, provides an erection and secondary sexual characteristics.
The hormone is responsible for the ability to produce offspring, maintains an increased interest in the opposite sex, prolongs life and youth, provides a great mood and such masculine qualities as courage, bravery, and activity.
Normally, the level of testosterone reaches its maximum in the morning, and its minimum – in the evening. For healthy.
The follicle-stimulating hormone in women is responsible for ovulation and the content of estrogen. The most accurate indicators of hormonal levels can be obtained in the middle of the cycle or from 3 to 8 days.
This hormone is also present in men. It promotes the production of testosterone, the maturation of sperm and is responsible for the level of the sexual power of a man.
Women take the test strictly on the appropriate days on the recommendation of the doctor, men – on any day of the month. The analysis is given early in the morning on an empty stomach.
To determine the level of prolactin, analyzes should be taken in the first and second phases of the cycle, in the morning on an empty stomach.
Before taking an analysis, one should refrain from sexual intercourse and observe complete rest. Elevated levels of prolactin can cause.
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How does our hormonal system work?
Happiness and anger, love and stress, anger and sexual desire – hormones become the “fuel” for all our emotions. They affect our height and weight, skin condition, attractiveness, energy – and, ultimately, our lives.
The human hormonal system today works in almost the same way as a primitive person. Technologically and socially, we are developing much faster.
But it is the smooth operation of the hormonal system that ensures the survival and adaptation of humanity as a species.
The work of the internal organs, reproductive functions, the cycle of sleep and wakefulness, desire, pregnancy, childbirth – all this is under the power of hormones and it is almost limitless.
Hormonal regulation in our organisms
For example, prolactin, among other things, causes breast growth, an increase in the number of lobes and ducts in the breast.
This means that there are prolactin target tissues in the chest. The hormonal system of the body is called the endocrine system, which consists of endocrine glands, they produce hormones.
The main organs of the endocrine system
Localization of vital glands may be different. Apart is located in the brain, such as the epiphysis, for example, a part is concentrated in the chest, lower back, in the lower part of the body, like the ovaries or testes are the chaff of the human gland.
1. Epiphysis, pituitary, hypothalamus.
2. The thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas.
3. In women – the ovaries and during pregnancy – the placenta, in men – the testicles.
Although there is no thorough understanding of the working mechanism of most hormones, nevertheless, scientists have been able to develop hormonal contraceptives for women, as well as drugs to restore a healthy hormonal balance.
10 causes of hormonal disorders in women and men
1. Stress. Disturbance of hormonal levels can cause frequent releases of cortisol, the “stress hormone.”
2. Abuse of diets. Since estrogens are produced in adipose tissue, thin girls almost certainly have an imbalance. For a woman’s hormonal background to be healthy, she must have at least some fat reserves.
3. Work on the night shift, lack of sleep or frequent flights between time zones cause a violation of the daily schedule of hormone levels and total hormonal levels.
4. “Self-designation” of hormonal drugs (hormonal contraceptives for women should be selected only by a doctor).
5. A diet is rich in phytohormones. Some foods and drinks contain substances that cause malfunctions in women and men: for example, beer, getting into the female body, causes masculinization of women and the feminization of men.
This means that men’s hormonal balance is disturbed and they become similar to women: their belly grows, their fat is quickly deposited, their breasts increase and they begin to hang.
In women, violations are also noticeable: hair begins to grow over the lips and on the chin and in other unwanted places, the hips become narrower, and the shoulders become wider.
6. Strengthened sports, physical overload. Violations in women can begin even for such an unobvious reason. In addition, sports during menstruation can lead to endometriosis.
7. Heredity. Hormonal disorders in women and men, in this case, are poorly treatable.
8. Transferred infections, especially sexually transmitted infections, can cause hormonal disturbances.
9. Living in an environmentally unfriendly region. Hormonal balance is disturbed by 30% more often in residents of industrial, polluted regions.
10. The presence of parasites in the body. By releasing toxins, parasites cause hormonal disturbances and other health problems.
Symptoms of hormonal failure
Changes in the body, reduced or elevated hormone levels can cause a wide variety of hormonal abnormalities: weight loss and weight gain, hair growth in the most undesirable places or hair disappear from where it should be, acne and dry skin, as well as more serious – up to infertility
The most common symptoms of a general nature in hormonal failure include:
- Sharp weight gain or weight loss, not associated with a change in diet;
- Problems with conception;
- Excessive body hair growth in women;
- Constant feeling of depression without sufficient reason or sudden mood swings;
- Irregular menstruation (irregular menstruation).
- Severe premenstrual syndrome.
Impaired production of certain hormones in women and men can cause:
- Trouble sleeping;
- Trembling fingers;
- Increased sweating;
- Lethargy, apathy;
- Hair loss;
- Change voice timbre;
- The rapid growth of the hands and feet;
- Change in facial features.
Acne – acne – also indicates a violation. In girls and women, it causes either too much androgen in the body, or a false hormonal imbalance – when the amount of male hormones is normal, but the receptors for them are too sensitive and behave as if there are a lot of androgens.
In adolescence, a girl’s hormonal imbalance can cause:
- underdevelopment of the uterus and mammary glands;
- lack of menstruation.
In her life, a woman experiences hormonal disorders several times: in adolescence, with each pregnancy – even if an abortion was performed – and during menopause.
The mechanism of how hormonal regulation works is not fully understood, but the most common causes of hormonal disruptions in women and men are known.
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List of hormone imbalance studies
Evaluating a blood test for hormones of the thyroid gland or other endocrine glands in different clinics and laboratories adhere to different standards and can be considered a deviation from the norm different values.
Therefore, the interpretation of the hormones may be different.
For various disorders, the doctor may prescribe tests for:
- Sex hormones;
- Thyroid hormones;
- Pituitary hormones.
If a couple is interested in planning a pregnancy, hormone tests are prescribed if violations of the endocrine glands are found.
In most cases, blood is taken for analysis, in some – urine.
Tests for hormones during pregnancy
Hormonal disorders in women during pregnancy can have serious consequences, so all women give hormonal analyzes. However, the list of tests is different and depends on the state of health of the pregnant woman and on the illness.
A change in the level of hormones occurs before the mother and the fetus begin to feel a symptom of hormonal failure, therefore, a timely hormone test, the decoding of which showed abnormalities, helps prevent serious problems.
What tests during pregnancy are prescribed for everyone?
Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a female sex hormone that releases a placenta during pregnancy. The hCG level is the surest way to determine if the pregnancy has come. Appears in the blood a week after conception, in the urine – one or two days later.
The analysis of sex hormones at week 16–20 — hCG, estriol, and AFP — makes it possible to assess possible abnormalities in the development of the fetus.
Estradiol – female sex hormone, “responsible” for the normal course of pregnancy. Concentration in the blood increases with each week of pregnancy, reaching a peak for childbirth.
Progesterone, like other female sex hormones, is produced in the ovaries and placenta and provides a normal course of pregnancy. His decline indicates that there is a threat of miscarriage.
Free estriol is excreted by the placenta. In this case, the analysis makes it possible to determine how developed and active is the blood flow in the umbilical cord and placenta.
Like progesterone and some other female hormones, estriol may indicate a post-term pregnancy. Also, its concentration is important in cases where there is a suspicion of delayed development of the child. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is produced by the fetus. Its level may signal malformations of the fetus.
17-ketosteroids (17-KS) – “the product of processing” of male hormones, allows you to indirectly judge their level in the body. If the sex hormone tests show elevated levels of 17-cc, this indicates an excess of androgens, which can lead to fetal death or miscarriage.
Globulin, which binds sex hormones (SHBG), is a protein that, by binding sex hormones, reduces their activity. Hormone testing is often accompanied by an HBG test. During pregnancy, its level helps to predict the likelihood of complications for the mother and child.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DEA sulfate). Analysis of hormones during pregnancy instead of 17-KS often includes determining the level of DEA-sulfate.
Its concentration can warn doctors about the lagging growth of the fetus, and also from the 12th to the 15th week allows to evaluate the work of the placenta and blood flow in the umbilical cord.
Testosterone is taken to determine the presence of development of congenital dysfunction of the adrenal
Thyroid hormone tests. The results of tests for hormones produced by the thyroid gland – T3 and T4 – allow evaluating the course of pregnancy and the development of the child as a whole.
If the blood test for thyroid hormones showed a decrease in their concentration, the risk of fetal death increases.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland. Its target is the thyroid gland, in which it stimulates the production of hormones T3 and T4.
Thyroid hormone testing often includes a TSH test, although it does not apply to thyroid hormones. The analysis of TSH, T3 and T4 can be interpreted differently on the basis of the norms that the doctor adheres to (only in the USA there are 4 regulations recommended by various large health organizations).
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Sex hormone tests
If you take hormone tests in different laboratories, the decoding will be different. This is due to the fact that different reagents and methods are used, so take the standard indicators where you have taken the analysis.
Low or elevated levels do not necessarily indicate the presence of a disease or hormonal disruptions in women and men — just retake tests elsewhere, taking into account the norms adopted in this laboratory.
Analyzes for hormones, the rate of which varies depending on age, the phase of the ma menstrual cycle, should be interpreted only by a doctor. About where to get tested for hormones, ask your doctor.
How and when to get tested for hormones?
1. Delivery of analyzes is made on an empty stomach.
2. For 1 day before the analysis you can not have sex, drink alcohol and smoke.
3. For the day before the analysis, limit physical activity.
4. Predict the results can stress – it is best to pass tests in a calm state.
5. When taking hormonal drugs, inform your doctor. Analyzes of hormones are useless if the decoding was performed without taking hormone preparations and other means that can artificially stimulate or suppress the production of hormones.
How to check the hormones?
Sometimes human health can deteriorate for no apparent reason. Often the cause is hormonal abnormalities, which are observed when the endocrine glands function improperly.
In order to test your hormonal background, both men and women can pass special tests in the laboratory. This will establish a possible cause of poor health. Prices for hormone tests depend on the type of test and may vary in different cases.
- thyroid gland;
- adrenal glands;
- pituitary gland;
- sex hormones that are produced by both the female and male endocrine systems.
Special attention should be paid to sex hormones, the correctness of which determines the possibility of conception, as well as the health and well-being of the patient as a whole. Particularly affected by these substances are female.
What female hormones can be tested?
To determine the causes of specific diseases, a blood test is taken for the content of:
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH);
- luteinizing hormone (LH);
- free triiodothyronine;
- total thyroxine;
- thyroid stimulating hormone and other substances.
Most tests must be taken on an empty stomach. In this regard, it is necessary to stop eating about 12 hours before the medical procedure.
If men can take a hormone test on any given day, it’s more difficult for women. So, before you pass the analysis, you need to inform the specialist the day of the menstrual cycle, and in the case of being in the position – the week of pregnancy.
In general, each substance that is secreted by the endocrine glands has individual properties. Therefore, before analyzing a particular hormone, it is necessary to get a detailed consultation from a doctor. Only, in this case, the test will show reliable results and will allow determining the cause of hormonal problems.
Hormonal background of a woman
Much depends on the production of hormones in the female body, and even the most important thing is the possibility of getting pregnant and carrying out a healthy child.
Before proceeding to this, it is recommended to diagnose hormones, because there are about 60 of them, and all of them must maintain a balance between themselves. The focus should be on sex hormones.
This hormone is actively involved in the maturation of eggs, the formation of milk in the breast after childbirth. If prolactin is reduced or increased, then the egg can stop developing, and it threatens with infertility.
This hormone is known as “stress” because its amount in the body increases during physical exertion, psychological shakes, and overwork.
You can do it regardless of the menstrual cycle. The analysis is done necessarily on an empty stomach and in the morning.
- Result. Take away the next day.
- Note. The day before the analysis you can not visit the bath and sauna, take a hot bath and have sex.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone-hero, because it is responsible for the growth of eggs (follicles) in the ovaries and the formation of a hormone that stimulates the growth of the endometrium in the uterus – estrogen.
Melbourne scientists believe that follicle-stimulating hormone is interrelated with estrogen, it increases its level in the body and due to this, the cerebral blood flow becomes more intense. This in turn greatly enhances his ability to work and mood. From the 3rd to the 7th day of the cycle.
The hormonal background of a woman largely depends on him, because he is the main female hormone. Development and condition of the genital organs depend on its level, in particular, whether the uterus is prepared for pregnancy.
It affects the regularity of menstruation and how eggs develop. Ovulation occurs about a day after estrogen reaches its peak. After it, he declines. With the onset of menopause in the ovaries, estradiol production decreases and critical days stop. Estrogen helps to improve memory. Its decrease during menopause and causes the fact that women complain of poor memory.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
He is responsible for the final phase of maturation of the egg and the process of ovulation. Also its role is to ensure the secretion of progestins and estrogens.
Luteinizing hormone decreases during pregnancy. In the US, physicians have recently been able to prove that when LH levels are elevated, it affects the auditory centers of the brain. Therefore, in elderly women, hearing is reduced.
From the 23rd to the 25th day of the cycle.
In the body of any woman, progesterone is present, but during pregnancy, its level increases significantly. Therefore, it is sometimes called the “pregnancy hormone.”
It is produced by the placenta and the corpus luteum, which is formed in the ovaries after the egg has matured. If progesterone levels are low during pregnancy, miscarriage can occur. At the sight of newborn babies, the level of this hormone rises sharply.
Although it is a male hormone, the adrenal glands and ovaries also produce it in women. When woman ovulation is too much in a woman, the likelihood of pregnancy failure increases and hair growth in unwanted places increases. It is proved that after a course of testosterone, women begin to understand road maps with great success. Alcohol abuse and smoking reduce testosterone.
On the 8-10th day of the cycle.
- Result.On the 6th day.
- Note. At the time of analysis, it is desirable not to eat 8 hours, and optimally 12 hours.
How to check hormones – blood test for hormones
In order to determine the level of hormonal levels, you must pass a blood test for hormones.
At a certain period of the menstrual cycle, blood is drawn from a vein. The specialist checks it for the presence and level of the necessary hormones.
- Help.In identifying the exact day when there will be ovulation to determine the probability of conception; identification and duration of pregnancy.
- When. In the morning, on an empty stomach.
- The preparatory process. On the eve of 20.00 to stop taking fatty foods and drinks (all but water). Dinner should be light, having sex as recommended by the doctor. Sports activities need to be postponed 3 days before the analysis and do not smoke an hour before it.
- Time.About 5 minutes.
- Positive.The exact picture of the hormonal background.
- Negative. We’ll have to take the analysis at least 4 times in order to avoid errors.
Symptoms of hormonal disorders
Disruption of hormonal levels may be due to genetic factors, infections, abortions, poor diet, stress, overwork, and endocrine diseases.
The main symptoms of hormonal disorders:
- Irregular menstruation after 17 years and its absence up to 15 years.
- The threat of pregnancy failure (bleeding and pain in the lower abdomen).
- Rash on the body.
- Complicated premenstrual syndrome (irritability, anxiety, breast swelling, abdominal pain).
- Complications of menopause (mood swings, pain in the heart and back, urinary incontinence, hot flashes, tearfulness).
- Increased body hair growth.
- Memory problems and inattention.
As you can see, the level of hormonal levels has a major effect on the state and health of the female body, and accordingly, many areas of its life.
Therefore, we should not ignore the alarming symptoms, given the fact that modern medicine allows you to identify the slightest imbalance and restore it.
What tests need to pass to check the hormones?
For the production of hormones are responsible for many organs and systems of the human body. Hormones, in turn, play the most important role in the process of functioning of all organs and systems of the human body.
Thus, violations in the work of organs that produce hormones, lead to disruption in the work of other organs and systems, which has the most severe consequences, manifested in the occurrence of various diseases, exacerbation of chronic inflammation, deterioration of general well-being, reduced quality of life.
Often, the hormonal system malfunctions that are started and not properly treated lead to disability and, in the worst case, to death.
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Hormones in the body
What are hormones for, what organs are produced and what are they responsible for?
Hormones, which are produced by the endocrine system and represent a special group of biologically active substances, are the main regulators of the body.
The main organs that are responsible for the production of hormones are:
Also for the production of hormones are responsible individual endocrine cells scattered throughout the body.
- responsible for the growth and development of the body;
- ensure the proper functioning of all organs and systems of the human body;
- contribute to an adequate response to changes in the external environment;
- take an active and direct part in the human mental activity;
- help in the formation of emotional reactions to certain situations.
The level of certain hormones in a person’s blood has certain norms, indicators of which depend on a person’s age, gender, place of residence and other factors.
A violation in the hormonal background is said if the level of hormones is not within the normal range, but above or below the permissible limits.
The hormonal background of a person can be disturbed for a variety of reasons and can occur with a variety of symptoms.
Causes of failure in the hormonal system
Causes of hormonal failure can be:
- frequent, strong and prolonged stress;
- misuse of hormonal drugs;
- eating foods or drinks rich in phytohormones;
- large physical overload;
- unfavorable environmental conditions;
- the presence of parasites in the body.
Symptoms of hormonal disorders.
Symptoms that indicate the state of hormonal levels include:
- – a sharp increase in weight;
- – excess hair on the body of a woman;
- – failure of the menstrual cycle;
- – the severe course of premenstrual syndrome;
- – a decrease in school performance;
- – uncontrollable mood swings;
- – weight loss with a good appetite;
- – worsening of sleep or even insomnia;
- – itching, redness, and rash on the skin of unknown etiology, etc.
Such symptoms may indicate an imbalance in the work of the hormonal system, which, ultimately, will lead to the emergence of various pathological processes, exacerbation of chronic diseases, etc.
Malfunction of the hormonal system seriously affects the work of all organs and systems of the human body, affects the physical, mental and psycho-emotional health of the person.
Therefore, at the first signs testifying to an imbalance in the work of the hormonal system, it is necessary to make an appointment with an endocrinologist, who, in turn, after talking with the patient, will send to pass the necessary tests to check the work of certain organs of the hormonal system, determine the state of the hormonal background and his compliance with regulatory indicators.
What tests need to pass?
What tests you need to pass to check the hormonal background: a list
Analyzes of female sex hormones include a study of the following hormones:
- – Luteinizing hormone (LH);
- – follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH);
Analysis of male sex hormones:
- Pituitary hormone analysis
- STG. Growth hormone ACTH. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
- TTG. thyroid-stimulating hormone
How and when to be tested for hormone levels?
First, hormone testing is done on an empty stomach. The material for analysis is blood taken from a vein.
Secondly, one day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to exclude sex, alcohol, and smoking.
Thirdly, the day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to limit physical exertion.
Fourthly, one day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to avoid stressful situations.
If you are taking hormonal drugs – notify your doctor, as this affects the interpretation of test results.
Convenient location centers.
The centers are located near the metro stations Marks Square, Zaeltsovskaya and on Stanislavsky Square, without a queue, without an appointment, high quality and low prices!
Studies are performed according to international quality standards.
How to get to the center on Kalinin Square? – from 8.00 to 12.00 weekdays, Saturday from 9.00 to 12.00
How to get to the center on Marx Square? – from 8.00 to 12.00 weekdays, Saturday from 9.00 to 12.00
On Sunday, tests are not taken.
In order to pass the tests in our center, you just have to come to us from 8.00 to 12.00 (on an empty stomach), preliminary recording and a call are not needed.
How to check the hormones
Often, along with an analysis of follicle-stimulating hormone, blood is donated to determine the level of luteinizing hormone – these two studies help to determine the cause of both male and female infertility.
Women can donate blood from the 3rd to the 8th day of the cycle or from the 19th to the 21st day; there are no restrictions for men – any day.
Prolactin or lactogenic hormone normally activates lactation, is responsible for the manifestation of maternal instinct, the growth, and development of certain internal organs (in women), and also affects the growth of seminal vesicles and prostate (in men).
Elevated levels of prolactin (observed most often) can cause infertility, impotence, and underdevelopment of certain organs.
Women undergo analysis in the first or second phase of the cycle, having previously prepared for blood donation (sexual rest, an absence of stress).
Analysis of the active female sex hormone estradiol surrenders on an empty stomach, at any convenient day. Estradiol regulates the menstrual cycle, is responsible for sexual desire, the development of sexual characteristics in women, etc.
Its deficiency in men causes persistent infertility.
Women are tested for progesterone when they are planning a pregnancy — its level indicates the ability of the endometrium to accept an egg and maintain a pregnancy.
During the planning period, couples are also offered to take a test for DEA sulfate – if it is elevated in a woman, then this may cause a pregnancy to not occur. Low levels of the male hormone signal the non-viability of sperm.
Testosterone levels can be checked on any given day — its high values indicate a risk of miscarriage, and for men, this may mean changes in the development of organs.
The analysis for determining the level of thyroid hormones is given strictly on an empty stomach.
Checking hormonal balance in women
On this depends not only the general condition of the person:
- healthy sleep;
- the psychological state of the body;
- the work of the endocrine glands.
If the amount of hormones in the body decreases or increases, the hormonal background fails. In this case, violations lead to the development of serious diseases in women. If there is a suspicion of a deviation in the number of hormones, experts prescribe the appropriate tests.
Causes of hormonal failure
Disruption of hormone levels in the body can occur for a number of reasons. The most vulnerable is the reproductive function. Thanks to the sex of the female hormones, the body can fulfill its purpose – it is the continuation of the species.
There are several causes of hormonal imbalance:
- various gynecological diseases. It may be a polyp, tumor (benign or malignant), uterine fibroids, cyst, menopause, and other diseases;
- endocrine diseases;
- change and disruption of the thyroid;
Depending on the reason that affects the imbalance of hormones in the body, a specialist sends a woman to take tests. After the study, diagnosing a problem in the body, appropriate treatment is prescribed.
Indications for testing for hormones
The specialist must keep under control the change in hormonal levels in women. The slightest fluctuations may indicate that there is a serious problem in the body.
As a rule, an analysis is scheduled to be performed so that the doctor can verify whether there is an etiology of the endocrine system, gynecological diseases in the body.
Signs indicating a hormonal failure:
- irregular menstrual cycle, without a corresponding etiology;
- infertility of different stages and degrees;
- before planning a pregnancy;
- while reducing sexual desire;
- with sexual infantilism;
- pressure surges;
- skin problems: acne;
- establishing pregnancy;
- severe premenstrual syndrome;
- excessive body hair and others.
A blood test is a study that helps to clarify the presence and content of the normal sex hormones. It is mainly prescribed for the following symptoms:
Hormones are biological substances that enter the blood vessels after secretion by the endocrine glands. They affect the entire body, guide our actions.
Evaluates the result of the study exclusively by the doctor. Since hormones will vary depending on the period of menstruation, on the state of the woman, on age. That is why in a non-age group, the rate of analysis will differ in meaning.
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How to make an analysis of hormones?
For analysis, a woman must donate blood. Hormones are very sensitive biologically active substances, any external changes in the environment can give inaccurate results. That is why you must know how to correctly and accurately pass the analysis.
The physician should give his recommendation on which particular day of the menstruation it is necessary to take an analysis. Is it possible to eat before passing the analysis or not.
In addition, the level of body hormones depends on physical exertion, depression and stress, and unhealthy diet. In no case should not be tested if symptoms of the disease are present.
Terms of testing for hormones
Prerequisite – the surrender on an empty stomach. Food has effects on certain hormones. As a result, their number in the body may increase or decrease. The result: an unreliable diagnosis.
Before donating blood, it is necessary to exclude:
Exercise should be reduced to a minimum.
Do not take drugs. It is necessary to check with the doctor the list of prohibited drugs.
The ideal time for analysis is approximately 2 hours after you wake up.
The secretion of hormones occurs by the endocrine glands. After absorption into the blood, they begin to regulate the metabolism of nutrients in the body. And only then, hormones are destroyed under the influence of special enzymes.
This cycle, which allows the body to develop properly, helps the functioning of various processes in the body. When taking an analysis, a specialist can promptly detect any abnormalities and begin treatment.
Period of blood donation
Depending on the type of hormone, analysis takes place at different periods of the menstrual cycle.
Progesterone helps to attach to the uterus of the egg. With insufficient levels in the body of a pregnant woman can be a miscarriage. Progesterone is determined on days 22–23, with the 28th menstrual cycle, it is produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is responsible for ovulation, helps the growth of the egg. It is present not only in women but also in men. Responsible for sexual power.
You can donate with research on luteinizing hormone, which helps the follicle to burst, contributes to the release and development of the egg. Blood is given on the fifth day if the cycle is 19–20 days.
Follicle-stimulating hormone occurs against the background of ovarian dysfunction or pituitary tumors of different etiologies.
Prolactin – a high level prevents conception. At the onset of a productive pregnancy reduces the production of the follicle-stimulating hormone. After birth, it affects the production of milk. Delivery – on the 4–5 day of the cycle.
Estrogens can be tested throughout the cycle. The only nuance of the amount at different stages will be different, the results are determined by the specialist.
Estrogen is responsible for critical days, the menstrual cycle. In addition, it helps to strengthen the skeletal system, improves the appearance and condition of the skin, helps the blood vessels to pass.
Blondes have the highest levels of estrogen in the body. If the number decreases, then the hair gradually darkens.
Testosterone is produced by the ovaries. Thanks to the hormone, the normal development of the musculoskeletal structure are performed. Elevated levels can lead to miscarriage. Surrender on the 5th or 8th day of the menstrual cycle.
The hormones thyroid and adrenal glands are determined on any given day.
Estradiol is responsible for the development of the reproductive system. It can be explored on any day of the cycle.
Before planning a pregnancy, spouses must be tested for DHE sulfate. If the level of the hormone is elevated, the woman has trouble conceiving.
Oxytocin is determined by blood in any period of the cycle. Oxytocin manages confidence in humans. For people who are heavily involved in charity, its level is increased.
Where can I get tested for hormones?
Blood donation can be carried out in public medical institutions. And analysis is performed free of charge, but only after a doctor’s referral.
To obtain results without the appointment of specialists, you should contact the private clinic. But do not try to decipher the analyzes yourself. Only a specialist can determine abnormalities based on the patient’s history.
Determination of hormonal failure
Disruption of hormone levels in the modern world is not uncommon. The main problem of imbalance is impaired reproductive function. In addition, the general well-being, the mental state of a woman is deteriorating.
Therefore, the definition of hormonal failure is best done at an early stage, and the treatment is carried out immediately.
The main signs of failure in the body
Changes in weight. In a normal diet, a person may experience obesity or a rapid weight loss. This clinical manifestation indicates hyperthyroidism. In addition to weight loss, it is possible:
- problems with the cardiovascular system.
If a woman has problems with reproductive function (problems with conception and planning of pregnancy), this is the main signal to see a specialist.
If a woman starts to grow male-type hair, this indicates that in the female body there is a large amount of the male hormone:
- the hair on the beard is noted, sideburns begin to grow, the chest becomes covered with hair;
- fatigue, mood swings;
- changes in the menstrual cycle;
- loss or breakage of hair;
- dry mouth, frequent urination, psoriasis.
The period of change depends on the age of the female half of humanity. For adolescents, an alarming bell is the absence of menstruation, poor breast development, excessive thinness.
After 40 years in women, there are failures in the background of the onset of menopause. If there are painful manifestations of the premenstrual syndrome, headaches, chest pain, hot flashes, insomnia.
This is the first reason that requires to consult a doctor.
In no case, it is impossible to ignore your health problems. Early diagnosis of health and treatment is the key to a good state of the body.
To prevent problems, you must carefully monitor your health, in time to pass a medical commission. This will save a person from serious troubles that arise when a hormonal failure.
Tests for hormones: from “A” to “Z”
Hormones are biologically active substances that are produced by various glands of the endocrine system, after which they enter the blood. They affect the work of the whole organism, in many respects determining the physical and mental health of a person.
Analyzes for hormones help to significantly clarify the clinical picture of the disease and prevent its development.
Hormonal tests: when and why are they prescribed?
The level of hormones is most often determined in the blood, less often – in the urine. Studies on hormones can be prescribed, for example, in the following cases:
- violations in the development of certain organs;
- pregnancy diagnosis;
- pregnancy threatened with miscarriage;
- renal dysfunction;
- metabolic disorders;
- problems with hair, nails, and skin;
- depressive states and other mental problems;
- tumor diseases.
A pediatrician, a therapist, an endocrinologist, a gynecologist, a gastroenterologist, a psychiatrist can give a referral for analysis.
Preparation for testing for hormones
What rules should be followed when giving blood for hormone level analysis so that the results are as accurate as possible?
It is necessary to refrain from eating food for 7-12 hours before blood collection. During the day prior to the study, alcohol, coffee, physical exertion, stress, sexual contacts should be excluded. The possibility of taking medication during this period should be discussed with your doctor.
In the study of the hormonal status of women, it is important to know which day of the cycle should be tested. So, blood for follicle-stimulating, luteinizing hormones, and prolactin is given for 3-5 days of the cycle, for testosterone – for 8-10, and for progesterone and estradiol – for 21-22 days.
If you donate daily urine, you should strictly adhere to the scheme of its collection and comply with storage conditions.
General principles for conducting and decoding analysis
Blood for research is taken from a vein in the morning on an empty stomach. The study period is usually 1-2 days.
The result obtained is compared by a doctor with the norms of hormone concentration, developed taking into account gender, patient’s age and other factors. The patient himself can study these norms.
Laboratory diagnostic methods
It is only a specialist (endocrinologist, gynecologist, therapeutist, gastroenterologist, etc.) who can decide what tests should be taken for hormones based on the results of the examination.
Moreover, the number of tests is commensurate with the number of hormones, and there are more than 100 of them in the body. In the article, we will consider only the most common types of research.
Evaluation of the somatotropic function of the pituitary gland is necessary for people who have gigantism, acromegaly (an increase in the skull, hands, and feet) or dwarfism. The normal content of somatotropic hormone in the blood is 0.2–13 mU / l, somatomedin-C – 220–996 ng/ml at the age of 14–16 years, 66–166 ng / ml – after 80 years.
Pathologies of the pituitary-adrenal system are manifested in impaired homeostasis of the body: increased blood clotting, increased synthesis of carbohydrates, reduced protein and mineral metabolism. To diagnose such pathological conditions, it is necessary to determine the content of the following hormones in the body:
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone is responsible for skin pigmentation and fat splitting, the norm is less than 22 pmol / l in the first half of the day and not more than 6 pmol / l in the second.
- Cortisol regulates metabolism, the norm is 250–720 nmol / l in the first half of the day and 50–250 nmol / l in the second half (the concentration difference should be at least 100 nmol / l).
- Free Cortisol – Surrenders if Itsenko-Cushing’s disease is suspected. The amount of hormone in the urine is 138–524 nmol/day.
These tests are often prescribed by endocrinologists for obesity or lack of weight, they are taken to determine if there are serious hormonal disruptions and which ones.
Disruption of the thyroid gland is manifested by increased irritability, changes in body weight, increased blood pressure and is fraught with gynecological diseases and infertility.
What tests should be taken for thyroid hormones, if at least a few of the above symptoms are detected? First of all, it concerns the study of the level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulate metabolic processes, mental activity, as well as the functions of the cardiovascular, sexual and digestive systems. Normal hormone levels look like this:
- T3 is common – 1.1–3.15 pmol / l, free – 2.6–5.7 pmol / l.
- T4 total – 60–140 nmol / l, free – 100–120 nmol / l.
- TSH – 0.2–4.2 mIU / L.
- Antibodies to thyroglobulin – up to 115 IU / ml.
- Antibodies to thyroperoxidase – 35 IU / ml.
- T-Uptake – 0.32–0.48 units.
- Tireoglobulin – up to 55 ng / ml.
- Antibodies to thyrocyte microsomal antigen – less than 1.0 U / l.
- Autoantibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone receptors – 0–0.99 IU / L.
Malfunctions in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism lead to osteoporosis or increased bone mineralization. Parathyroid hormone promotes calcium absorption in the intestinal tract, as well as reabsorption in the kidneys.
The content of parathyroid hormone in the blood of an adult – 8-24 ng / l. Calcitonin contributes to the deposition of calcium in the bones, slowing its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and increasing excretion in the kidneys.
The standard content of calcitonin in the blood is 5.5–28 mole / l. It is recommended to donate blood for analyzes of this type when the menopause begins because women during this period are most susceptible to osteoporosis.
In the body of any person, both male and female hormones are produced. Their correct balance ensures the stability of the reproductive system, normal secondary sexual characteristics, an even mental state.
The development of certain sex hormones can be disrupted due to age, bad habits, heredity, endocrine diseases.
Dysfunctions of the reproductive system due to hormonal disruptions lead to male and female infertility, as well as provoke miscarriages in pregnant women. In the presence of such problems, blood is given for the analysis of female hormones, such as:
- Macroprolactin is the norm for men: 44.5–375 µIU / ml, for women: 59–619 µIU / ml.
- Prolactin – the rate is 40 to 600 mU / l.
- Pituitary gonadotropic hormones and prolactin – the ratio is 1 before the menopause.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone: its content in the follicular phase normally amounts to 4–10 U / l, in the period of ovulation – 10–25 U / l, and during the luteal phase – 2–8 U / l.
- Estrogens (the norm in the follicular phase is 5–53 pg/ml, during the ovulation period 90–299 pg/ml and 11–116 pg/ml during the luteal phase) and progestin.
- Luteinizing hormone – the norm in the follicular phase – 1–20 U / l, in the period of ovulation – 26–94 U / l, during the luteal phase –0.61–16.3 U / l.
- Estradiol – the norm in the follicular phase – 68–1269 nmol / l, the ovulation period – 131–1655 nmol / l, during the luteal phase – 91–861 nmol / l.
- Progesterone – the norm in the follicular phase – 0.3-0.7 μg / l, the ovulation period – 0.7–1.6 μg / l, during the luteal phase 4.7–8.0 μg / l.
Evaluation of androgenic function is carried out with infertility, obesity, high cholesterol, hair loss, youthful acne, and reduced potency. So:
- Testosterone is normal for men – 12–33, for women – 0.31–3.78 nmol / l (hereinafter, the first indicator is the norm for men, the second for women).
- Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – 10–20 and 3.5–10 mg/day.
- Sex hormone binding globulin –13–71 and 28–112 nmol / l.
- 17-hydroxyprogesterone – 0.3–2.0 and 0.07–2.9 ng / ml.
- 17-ketosteroids: 10.0–25.0 and 7–20 mg / day.
- Dihydrotestosterone – 250–990 and 24–450 ng / l.
- Free testosterone – 5.5–42 and 4.1 pg/ml.
- Androstenedione – 75–205 and 85–275 ng / 100 ml.
- Androstenediol glucuronide – 3.4–22 and 0.5–5.4 ng / ml.
- Anti-Muller hormone – 1.3–14.8 and 1.0–10.6 ng/ml.
- Inhibin B – 147–364 and 40–100 pg/ml.
Diagnosis of diabetes and evaluation of the endocrine function of the pancreas are necessary for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, dry mouth, skin itching, edema. Below are the names and regulatory indicators of pancreatic hormones:
- C-peptide – 0.78-1.89 ng / ml.
- Insulin – 3.0–25.0 µED / ml.
- Insulin Resistance Rating Index (HOMA-IR) is less than 2.77.
- Proinsulin – 0.5–3.2 pmol / l.
Pregnancy monitoring is carried out in order to prevent developmental pathologies and fetal death. In the antenatal clinic, when registering, they tell in detail what hormone tests should be performed and why they should donate blood for the analysis of hormones during pregnancy. In the general case are investigated:
- Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) – its concentration depends on the gestational age: from 25–200 mU/ml at 1–2 weeks to –Med/ml at 7–11 weeks.
- Free b-hCG – from 25–300 mU/ml at 1–2 weeks of gestation to –mU/ml at 26–37 weeks.
- Estriol free (E3) – from 0.6–2.5 nmol / l at 6–7 weeks to 35.0–111.0 nmol / l at 39–40 weeks.
- Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) – the test is done from week 7 to week 14, the norm is from 0.17–1.54 mU/ml at 8–9 weeks to 1.47–8.54 honey/ml for 13-14 weeks.
- Placental lactogen – from 0.05–1.7 mg / l at 10–14 weeks to 4.4–11.7 mg / l at week 38.
- Prenatal screening for trisomy 1 trimester (PRISCA-1) and 2 trimester of pregnancy (PRISCA-2).
Malfunctions in the sympathoadrenal system should be sought in the presence of panic attacks and other autonomic disorders. To do this, you need to donate blood for analysis and check which hormones from the list are out of the normal range:
- Adrenaline (112–658 pg / ml).
- Noradrenaline (less than 10 pg / ml).
- Metanephrine (less than 320 mcg / day).
- Dopamine (10–100 pg / ml).
- Homovanilic acid (1.4–8.8 mg/day).
- Normetanephrine (less than 390 mcg / day).
- Vanillyl acid (2.1–7.6 mg/day).
- 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (3.0–15.0 mg/day).
- Plasma histamine (less than 9.3 nmol / l).
- Serotonin serum (40–80 µg / l).
The state of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is responsible for maintaining the circulating blood volume, makes it possible to evaluate hormones such as aldosterone (in blood) – 30–355 pg / ml and renin (in plasma) – 2.8–39.9 μMU / ml in the patient lying down and 4.4–46.1 µIU / ml standing.
The regulation of appetite and fat metabolism is carried out with the help of the hormone leptin, whose concentration in the blood normally reaches 1.1–27.6 ng/ml in men and 0.5–13.8 ng/ml in women.
Evaluation of the gastrointestinal endocrine function is performed by determining the level of gastrin (less than 10–125 pg/ml) and stimulated gastrin-17 (less than 2.5 pmol / l)
The hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis (formation of erythrocytes) is estimated on the basis of data on the amount of erythropoietin in the blood (5.6–28.9 IU / L in men and 8–30 IU / L in women).
The decision on what tests must be taken for hormones should be made on the basis of the existing symptoms and preliminary diagnosis, as well as taking into account associated diseases.
Where can I donate blood for hormone analysis?
Get direction on the analysis of the level of hormones can be in any public or private clinics, hospitals, antenatal clinics. The number of modern laboratories, however, is small, and the best of them are often overloaded, especially when it comes to free analysis.
An effective solution that many patients choose is to contact a networked private laboratory, finding a medical office near their home or work and signing up for a convenient date.
For example, in the independent laboratories “INVITRO” the main analyzes of hormones in the blood are carried out. The results can be obtained by hand or by e-mail as soon as possible.
The cost of one analysis ranges from 500–2700 rubles. These are market average values. In addition, by invitro cards, you can get tangible discounts.