How long does hydrocodone stay in your hair?
Hydrocodone can stay in the hair for up to 90 days.
How long does hydrocodone last in your urine?
In normal situations, hydrocodone itself should be detectable in the urine after 24 hours of the last dose administration, but its active metabolite hydrocodone may remain in the urine for up to 2-3 days.
How long does hydrocodone last in your blood?
In normal situations, hydrocodone should be detectable in the blood for one day after the last dose is given.
How does genetics affect the elimination of hydrocodone?
Different genes are known to influence drug metabolism, including hydrocodone. Genes that regulate CYP450 liver enzymes such as CYP2D6 can have great influence if a patient metabolizes hydrocodone at a faster or slower rate than the average.
Based on genetics, certain patients are classified as “rapid metabolizers,” while others are “slow metabolizers.” This may result in different effects of medicines, but also variability in elimination rates.
How does hydrocodone removal affect food?
Foods such as carbohydrates can slow the absorption of hydrocodone if taken together. However, taking hydrocodone on an empty stomach may increase the absorption of this medicine.
Differences in absorption time may influence the rate of elimination of the drug from the body. Those who eat a high carbohydrate meal together with hydrocodone may be delayed.
How does liver or kidney function affect the elimination of hydrocodone?
Because Hydrocodone is metabolized in the liver, liver problems and impaired liver function can prolong the Half-Life and prolong the elimination of hydrocodone.
For example, someone with cirrhosis or hepatitis may take longer hours to metabolize and remove hydrocodone from their system compared to healthy people. Also, renal failure may also delay the elimination of medicine.
How does the elimination of hydrocodone affect urinary pH?
Patients with more acid urine can eliminate hydrocodone and metabolize it more effectively than those with highly alkaline urine. Urine alkalinity is known to promote drug reabsorption before elimination and therefore slows clearance.
How does the frequency of use of Hydrocodone affect its elimination?
Users of a single dose (patients who use Hydrocodone only once) are more likely to remove the drug faster from the body than those who regularly use it for a long period.
This is likely to be caused by the fact that when Hydrocodone is frequently used for several days, hydrocodone and its metabolites will accumulate in the body until the “peak” is reached. Once the “peak” is reached, the cleaning time will be prolonged.
Single and rare dose users are likely to accumulate hydrocodone compared to frequent users. These patients should be able to excrete the drug efficiently from the body in less than two days.
However, long-term users who are on treatment with chronic hydrocodone may take more than two days to eliminate hydrocodone.
How do other medications affect the elimination of hydrocodone?
Because hydrocodone is metabolized by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome 450, all drugs that affect CYP2D6 and may reduce or prolong the half-life of the hydrocodone.
Drugs classified as CYP2D6 inhibitors are known to affect the body’s ability to remove hydrocodone from the body.
CYP2D6 inhibitors are SSRIs (such as paroxetine, citalopram, fluoxetine, etc.), codeine, methadone, amiodarone, sertindole, yohimbine and more.
Certain CYP2D6 inhibitors may delay metabolism to a higher level than others, and dosing often plays a role. There are also medicines known as CYP2D6 inducers, such as dexamethasone and rifampin, which can improve the metabolism of hydrocodone.
These drugs improve the metabolism of hydrocodone, resulting in faster elimination of the system.
Hydrocodone and its action
Hydrocodone belongs to narcotic pain relievers strong. Its second functional application is the treatment of a cough. The more common name of the drug — Vicodin, it contains in its composition hydrocodone and paracetamol.
Following its name, dihydrocodeinone, it gives an idea and the Association of the substance with codeine. This is a polysynthetic opioid, the basis of which are codeine and thebaine — opiates of natural origin.
Vicodin is used to relieve symptoms of colds, accompanied by an increase in body temperature and cough and as an analgesic. The danger of using supratherapeutic doses is in the formation of addiction, so the course of treatment is strictly regulated by the doctor, and its algorithm can not be changed.
A chemical formula of hydrocodone
The content of paracetamol makes the drug effective in reducing body temperature and enhances its analgesic effect. Kazeinovaja component is used for braking the cough center.
The drug effectively helps a person with ARI and SARS and other diseases with similar symptoms. A chemical formula is C18H21NO3
The drug is available in forms suitable for oral administration. The dosage of the therapy is 5 to 10 mg. This amount equals in the strength of 60 mg of morphine taken orally.
This drug is also used to codeine. The algorithm of dependence formation is the same, but the effect of euphoria is weaker. In Russia, Vicodin is in the list №1 and is not freely sold.
History of the substance
The date of synthesis of paracetamol, which is a part of Vicodin, is 1877 (Johns Hopkins University). Then, in 1920, in Germany, was received dihydrocodeinone or hydrocodone. In 2004, the whole world learned about Vicodin from the series Dr. house, where the main character is saved from the terrible pain in the leg with the help of this drug.
The use of hydrocodone as a drug grew gradually in the 20th century and had passed into our century. The pharmacy is often asked Tussionex a cough and uses it as a drug to get a light buzz.
It is sold in the form of tablets, capsules, syrup and effectively fights coughing attacks. But it should be taken by the doctor’s prescription, do not exceed the dosage and do not prolong the duration of treatment on their own.
The application in the medical purposes
The use of Vicodin for therapeutic purposes is intended to relieve pain syndromes, including severe ones. Also, it relieves coughing attacks and facilitates the condition of patients with its sedative effect.
The drug is available in combination with paracetamol or aspirin. This combination gives an increased impact; the analgesic effect is doubled.
The tool has some contraindications, so you can not decide on taking the drug. Taking medication for pregnant women can cause miscarriage and create problems in the respiratory system. The substance penetrates the placental barrier, so it is dangerous for the fetus. Nursing mothers are also forbidden to use hydrocodone, as it enters the body of the child with breast milk.
Signs of use
In addition to changes in mood and illogical actions and thoughts, a person who uses Vicodin shows the following symptoms:
- starts watery eyes, the eyes of an addict “wet” constantly;
- from the nose flows like a cold, runny nose;
- decreases appetite, losing weight;
- man yawns constantly;
- in the digestive tract there are colic and nausea;
- begins strong sweating, accompanied by chills.
Effects on the body
The analgesic effect of Vicodin is due to its ability to bind to CNS receptors. But for caution, it is necessary to remember that in combination with alcohol, the agent becomes the cause of increased drowsiness. The same effect is given by a combination of hydrocodone with other drugs.
The adverse effect of high doses on the body is expressed in side effects:
- from the CNS — dizziness;
- the digestive system reacts with nausea, vomiting, stool difficulty;
- disturbed blood supply and urination;
- comes euphoria and emotional instability.
Frequent phenomena in drug addicts are lethargy, anxiety, decreased mental activity, seizures, allergic skin rashes.
The development of dependence
Hydrocodone refers to tolerant substances, that is, the body to achieve the euphoric state is not constantly satisfied with the same dose. It should be periodically increased.
This process for the duration of each is different. Its end comes when the dosage becomes life-threatening.
The drug forms an addiction that is difficult to fight. Dependence is twofold — physical and mental. It causes codeine contained in the drug. Treatment is carried out in a drug clinic according to the algorithm of getting rid of dependence on codeine-containing drugs.
Fatal consequences of use
Serious excess of therapeutic doses and long-term use of the drug causes pathological changes in the body, which cause severe ailments and even death.
- heart attack;
- spasm of respiratory organs and its stop;
- multiple organ failure-stop working liver, kidneys, which causes jaundice;
- amnesia, loss of vision;
The most horrifying effects occur when combined with Vicodin and alcohol or other drugs
Help with Vicodin overdose
Therapeutic dosage per day does not exceed 60 mg in ordinary patients and up to 40 mg in those who have an increased sensitivity to the components of the drug. In drug addicts, it is much higher than 200 mg, the threshold increases with the formation of severe dependence.
Critical symptoms of poisoning are the spasm of breath, irresistible drowsiness, stupor, stickiness of the skin, and its coldness, bradycardia, critical pressure and coma.
When removing from the state of overdose, resuscitation from the ventilator is carried out; therapeutic measures are taken to remove intoxication and its consequences. Attention is paid to the stabilization of mental state.