WOUND HEALING STAGES
Wounds of any origin in the healing process go through three successive stages:
- Inflammation. The duration of this phase is about 5 days from the date of injury. It is characterized by edema and an increase in temperature of the surrounding tissues, resulting from the expansion of the vessels and infiltration, by pain. At this time there is a migration of leukocytes to the wound, which cleanses it from dead tissue. The defect begins to be filled with a special granulation tissue with a multitude of capillaries,
- Regeneration. At this stage, with a duration of 1-2 weeks, specific fibroblast cells actively synthesize elastin and collagen for healing. Edema subsides, pain and temperature decrease. The granulation tissue fills the wound, and a layer of epithelium forms on top – the damage is healed.
- Scar formation. This phase lasts at least six months, during which the first scar is compacted and reorganized. It is due to the transformation of the granulate into connective tissue.
If the wound is delayed quickly and without complications, it is healing by the first intention.
When an infection joins at the stage of inflammation and suppuration occurs, the wound heals with a longer secondary tension.
FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING
The duration of each phase of healing may differ significantly from the indicated periods. In this case, the difference can be either downwards or upwards. It depends on many factors.
The following factors contribute to a quick recovery:
- Age. The younger the patient, the faster the healing of the tissue. In childhood and youth, the ability of tissues to regenerate is maximum.
- Lack of wound infection. Any inflammatory process increases the time of regeneration.
- Proper nutrition provides strong immunity and the availability of all the necessary nutrients for the recovery process.
- Quality and timely first aid. If the wound was immediately washed and treated with an antiseptic, the probability of its suppuration is minimal.
- Careful care. Regular dressings and supportive drug therapy promote healing.
Also, not too extensive and deep damage is delayed faster.
Such factors as:
- Older age. Over the years, metabolism slows down and, consequently, the regenerative capabilities of the organism.
- The presence of chronic inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency states (HIV, AIDS, and others), skin diseases.
- Infection of the wound with pathogenic bacteria, which leads to suppuration and significantly delays the healing process.
- Incorrectly provided first aid and inadequate care of the wound in the future contributes to the accession of the infection.
Note! As a rule, deep and extensive wounds heal longer, even if the victim was provided with high-quality medical care and all medical prescriptions were observed.
HOW TO SPEED WOUND HEALING?
The course and duration of treatment are greatly influenced by first aid.
Correct actions – washing, disinfecting and sterile dressing – prevent complications and promote rapid recovery. The faster the wound is treated, the more thoroughly it is cleaned, the less chance there is to do without infection.
When stitching for speedy healing, it is necessary to treat the wound with green paint, iodine or just alcohol.
It is necessary to dress the wound 1-2 times a day. It is important to observe sterility and process the instruments with alcohol, wash hands thoroughly and dry hands using only a clean towel and sterile dressing material.
Note! Before each dressing, the wound must be cleaned. It is recommended to wash it with antiseptics – hydrogen peroxide, Miramistin, Chlorhexidine.
The choice of remedies depends on what kind of damage it has. Wet and dry wounds are treated with various means.
When wet wounds cannot be used ointment because the film that forms on its surface in this case to suspend the outflow of fluid, and healing will be delayed. Treat the wound means for accelerated healing is possible only if there is no inflammation.
As soon as the wound begins to dry, you need to change the tool. It is better if another form of the same preparation is used; for example, the gel is replaced with an ointment. In this case, the application of the dressing can already be canceled or applied a couple of hours after the wound has been treated.
For treatment use pharmaceutical preparations for local use in various dosage forms:
- Methyluracil ointment. An anti-inflammatory drug that increases local immunity and stimulates regeneration. It is used at the stages of inflammation and recovery for wounds of any type, including purulent (in combination with antibiotics). Apply under the bandage with a thin layer twice a day, the course of treatment is from 2 to 16 weeks.
- Dexpanthenol and other products based on it in the form of gels, sprays, and creams. I possess wound healing properties. They are used since the moment of injury (after its disinfection). Sprays can be applied without a dressing on dry wounds; gels and creams are used for wet wounds (for dressing). The frequency and duration of use – at least 2 times a day until complete healing.
- Solcoseryl or Actovegin. These ointments contribute to the production of collagen, accelerate cellular metabolism and oxygen metabolism in tissues. Designed for dry wounds, applied daily 1-2 times (with or without a bandage) until an elastic scar is formed.
- Curiosin. Drops and cream contain a compound of zinc with hyaluronic acid, which provide an antibacterial effect and activates the division of skin cells. It is suitable for any wounds; it is applied twice a day: the gel is implemented without a dressing, lotions are made with the solution. The duration of treatment is not limited (until healing).
- Kontraktubeks. The ointment should be used at the stage of regeneration since it inhibits the development of connective tissue cells from which a jagged scar is formed. Not suitable for purulent and moist wounds. The course of treatment is 4 weeks, during which daily 2-3 times (under the bandage) ointment is applied with a thin layer.
Folk remedies are used as additional therapy.
To speed up the regeneration, you can make lotions from decoctions of calendula, chamomile or oak bark.
Usually, take a tablespoon of raw materials in a glass of water, boil for 15 minutes and use after cooling and filtering several times a day.
Apply compresses from juice or cut sheet of aloe.
Propolis in the form of homemade alcohol tincture (1 part of propolis 10 days infused in 10 parts of alcohol) for lubrication of wounds promotes healing.
Mummy: 0.2 g of the substance is dissolved in a glass of water, the resulting solution is drunk daily overnight, and also used for washing the wound and compresses.
Note! Categorically it is impossible to use means on a fatty basis. They slow down the metabolic processes in the wound, preventing healing.
Nutrients for healing wounds
When you have an injury, what you eat is essential in your speed of recovery. Various foods accelerate the healing of wounds, whether deep or minor wounds. These foods provide essential vitamins and minerals that help heal wounds faster and the proper functioning of human organ systems.
Foods that help rapid wound healing:
It is a well-known spice that is widely used for the treatment of wounds.
Curcumin is an antioxidant present in turmeric that helps in reducing inflammation and speeding up the healing process. Directly apply turmeric paste on the wound and wrap it with a cloth for quick healing. It is still a common practice in many parts of Asia.
It contains the necessary amount of several vitamins and amino acids, which can help reduce inflammation, pain, and swelling. Its antibacterial properties further inhibit the infection of wounds.
Dairy products such as milk and yogurt can help in the wound healing process due to the high concentration of protein and zinc. However, science has not yet provided sufficient evidence of the role of proteins found in milk for wound healing.
Meat has a significant amount of protein and zinc, and therefore it helps speed wound healing. Nevertheless, it is a complete myth that storing a piece of meat on a wound will aid healing.
There is plenty of clinical evidence that zinc helps improve wound epithelialization. Products containing zinc include meat products (oysters and other seafood, beef, chicken, etc.), dairy products, whole wheat, and wheat germ, beans, lentils, and various nuts.
Vitamin C is essential for wound healing and the formation of scar tissue. Therefore, people with wounds should eat a sufficient amount of amla, guava, lemon, orange, cranberry, strawberry, pineapple, kiwi, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, spinach, white cabbage and other foods containing vitamin C.
Sweet potato (sweet potato)
Sweet potatoes are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin B and vitamin C, which, as you know, is needed to speed wound healing.
Ghee (made from cow’s milk), also known as clarified butter, is widely used in wound healing in Ayurveda.
According to a study published in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, ghee helps in closing wounds and regenerating cells around wounds, which ultimately accelerates the healing process.
Iron deficiency, also known as anemia, can slow wound healing. Often, tablets and iron-containing products are recommended for people after surgery to ensure quick healing of wounds.
Some of these foods are leafy vegetables, lentils, turkey, beef liver. Nevertheless, there is a controversial study that shows a minimal effect on the use of iron on wound healing.
Finally, for any form of healing, it is necessary that you consume enough liquid. To be clear, we are not talking about coffee, carbonated beverages, and alcohol. Healthy fluids are water, fruit juice, and soups.