Vasectomy is the safest and most effective method of male sterilization. The operation is of global relevance and popularity because it is the most reliable method of contraception.
What is a vasectomy? Vasectomy is an operation to stop reproductive function in men by bandaging or removing a fragment of the VAS. Thus, sperm penetration into the sperm is prevented. This procedure should not be confused with castration since castration involves removal of the testicles.
Spermatozoa are produced in the tiny testicular tubules. The productivity of their education is about fifty thousand in one hour. After vasectomy in men, spermatozoa continue to be produced, but they cannot leave the body, but simply split along with the carrier fluid and are absorbed by the body.
The operation lasts 15-30 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia. Already on the same day a man can go home.
Before a vasectomy, the patient must undergo mandatory examinations, which include a urologist examination, complete blood count and urine test, HIV test, syphilis, hepatitis, blood clotting, ECG.
Vasectomy is performed according to the following indications:
- in the USA, a male vasectomy can be performed by the voluntary desire of a man if he is over 35 years old and has 2 or more children;
- for medical reasons, regardless of the age and number of children of the man (for example, in the presence of serious genetic diseases that are inherited or intolerable to other methods of contraception);
- if the wife’s pregnancy poses a great danger to her life and health.
- oncological diseases;
- infectious, skin diseases;
- bleeding disorders;
- an operation is not performed
- constant and reliable contraceptive method;
- male sterilization operations are not complicated and are performed under local anesthesia;
- vasectomy does not affect or alter the male sexual function, does not affect the potency and sexual desire;
- surgical sterilization does not affect the production of hormones by the ovaries;
- very high efficiency of the operation;
- optimal cost of the procedure;
- no side effects and consequences in the distant future.
The disadvantages of the operation include:
- soreness and discomfort after the procedure;
- possible spontaneous opening of the seminal ducts;
- the operation does not protect against HIV and hip;
- After the vasectomy for the first three months, additional contraception should be used.
Rehabilitation takes place at home. After surgery, a man may feel pain and discomfort for several days. Full recovery occurs in about seven days. A week later, you also need to visit a doctor for an examination.
After a vasectomy, the absolute absence of sperm in the semen is achieved only after 3 months or after twenty ejaculations.
An important condition for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy is that after surgery other types of contraception should be used (for example, COCs – combined oral contraceptives, condoms, etc.).
In order to fully ensure that there are no spermatozoa in the ejaculate, it is worthwhile to carry out a spermogram 3 times (ejaculate analysis).
After a vasectomy, scar tissue is formed at the site of the duct incision, but sometimes (about 1 case for four thousand operations) it is formed in such a way that restores the duct lumen. Such a phenomenon can occur after seventeen months, so after a year, all men should be screened for sperm.
After the procedure, the following effects are possible:
- hematoma (accumulation of blood) of the scrotum;
- severe swelling in the operated area.
If you experience an elevated temperature, severe hematoma, and swelling, soaking the bandage with blood – you should immediately consult a doctor.
The risk of complications after this procedure is extremely small. The main thing is to choose an experienced doctor and a good clinic, as well as fully compliant with the recommendations of the doctor.
Male sterilization is much safer than female sterilization, as female sterilization often causes complications and can even be fatal. Vasectomy is a safe and easy operation at an optimal cost.
How much is a vasectomy? The cost of surgery includes payment of surgical procedures and anesthesia. The price in Russia is from 10 to 25 thousand rubles. The average price in Moscow is 20 thousand rubles.
Will a vasectomy reverse the result? Reverse vasectomy (return of fertility) can be performed successfully if not more than five years have passed since the procedure.
During a reverse vasectomy, the deferens of the deferent streams of the cut sections occur. Up to sixty percent of patients after that can conceive.
The probability of success of a reverse vasectomy depends on time, that is, the more time has passed, the less chance there is of restoring the ability to conceive.
In older people, the likelihood of recovery is very low, because due to the long atrophy of the testicles, spermatozoa simply cease to be produced.
Before performing a vasectomy, the doctor should tell the patient the whole essence of the procedure, its irreversible and inevitable consequences, and possible complications.
The following points should be covered:
- Fertility (the ability to conceive) after the operation is not always possible to restore. Reverse vasectomy is an extremely complex process that requires very high qualifications of the doctor, his experience and training.
- The fertility restoration operation is expensive.
- The success of the recovery operation is not guaranteed, even when performed by an experienced doctor and in good patient health.
It is best of all to decide on the commission of surgical contraception with a woman you love. If a person does not have a family and children, then the operation is recommended to be postponed. To make the right decision, you should read reviews, read medical articles on this topic, watch a video (for example, a video from an interview with a urologist or a video about the procedure).
Every man takes a responsible approach to this issue, but sometimes life circumstances may later cause him to regret the vasectomy done earlier (for example, the death of his wife or child, a new marriage).
Therefore, before such a serious operation, a man should perform cryopreservation of sperm, that is, freezing for long-term storage, which provides the possibility of paternity.
Due to this, artificial insemination can be performed in the future.
Male contraception: vasectomy
Male contraception: vasectomyVasectomy is one of the most reliable methods of male contraception offered by modern medicine.
vasectomy, male sterilization, contraception, men
To date, there are only two means of male contraception: the use of condoms and vasectomy.
The first method has its drawbacks: the possibility of breaking a condom during intercourse, reducing the sensitivity of the penis, etc. Therefore, in many cases, a vasectomy operation is a reliable means of contraception.
This method allows you to protect your partner from unwanted pregnancy and at the same time does not affect sexual intercourse itself.
How is a vasectomy?
The operation is quite simple, is performed in most cases under local anesthesia, does not require further hospitalization and takes 20-25 minutes.
Its essence lies in the ligation or the intersection of the vas deferens, through which sperm get from the epididymis to the ejaculatory canal. During orgasm, the man continues to stand out as usual with sperm.
Its number does not change, since sperm form an extremely small part of it.
There are various options for surgery. Most often cuts are made in the groin area from two sides. Sometimes an incision is made in the midline of the scrotum. After surgery, swelling and hematoma are possible in the scrotum, which lasts for a maximum of five days.
A week later, the patient can begin to live sexually. The contraceptive effect of male sterilization occurs three months after the vasectomy. Until this date, it is necessary to use other methods of contraception.
Then you need to make a program to control the absence of sperm in the semen.
Who should pay attention to vasectomy?
Indications for vasectomy surgery are determined by Article 57 of the Federal Law on the Fundamentals of the Protection of Citizens’ Health in the Russian Federation of 21 November 2011 No. 323-ФЗ.
It states that a vasectomy can be done by a written statement to men over the age of thirty-five or to citizens who have at least two children. If there are medical indications for surgery, then sufficiently informed voluntary consent to the operation.
Medical indications include diseases that can cause incurable and serious illnesses in an unborn child or conditions that make a woman pregnant and giving birth dangerous.
Do not do a vasectomy for those men who are not sure of their decision to have no children in the future. A doctor before the operation, it is desirable to ensure the consent of the spouses of the patient to conduct a vasectomy.
How effective is a vasectomy?
Male sterilization provides almost 100% protection against unwanted pregnancy partner. At the site of the incision of the vas deferens a scar is formed, so in most cases, it is impossible to restore its permeability to spermatozoa. It rarely happens, so a year after the operation it is necessary to be examined again and make a control program.
Male sterilization in case of ligation of the vas deferens is, in principle, reversible, but, unfortunately, even experienced doctors do not always manage to restore fertility (ability to have offspring) after vasectomy surgery. Approximately 30–35% of vasectomy is irreversible.
In India and China, the state encourages men to do a vasectomy.
It is one way to control a country’s population.
How much does male sterilization cost?
Depending on the medical facility, the price of vasectomy may vary. On average, it is 11-25 thousand rubles without taking into account the analysis and consultation of the surgeon-urologist.
Methods of contraception: understand the types and choose the most effective
Contraceptives – means used to prevent pregnancy. The purpose of contraception is family planning, preserving the health of a woman, and in part her sexual partner, the realization of a woman’s right to free choice: to become pregnant or refuse it.
Why are all types of contraception necessary:
- any methods of contraception reduce the number of abortions – the causes of gynecological diseases, premature birth, maternal and infant mortality;
- protection helps to plan the appearance of the child depending on the living conditions of the family, the health of the parents and many other factors;
- Some effective methods of contraception at the same time help fight gynecological diseases, osteoporosis, infertility.
The effectiveness of contraceptives is estimated by the Pearl index. It shows how many women out of a hundred who have applied the method during the year have a pregnancy. The smaller it is, the higher the effectiveness of protection. Modern contraceptive methods have a Pearl index close to 0.2-0.5, that is, pregnancy occurs in 2-5 women out of 1000.
Classification of contraceptive methods:
- intrauterine devices;
- physiological (natural);
- surgical sterilization
Consider these types of contraception, the principle of their actions, effectiveness, indications, and contraindications.
Use foreign objects placed in the uterus. Intrauterine contraception is widespread in China, Russia, Scandinavian countries.
The method was proposed as early as the beginning of the twentieth century when it was proposed to introduce a ring of different materials into the uterine cavity to prevent pregnancy. In 1935, intrauterine contraception was banned due to a large number of infectious complications.
In 1962, Lipps proposed the great device made of curved plastic with a nylon thread attached to extract the contraceptive – the Lipps loop. Since then, intrauterine contraception is constantly evolving.
Intrauterine devices are divided into inert and drug. Inert currently not used. Only medical contraceptives containing metal supplements or hormones are recommended, including:
- MultiloadCu-375 – a spiral in the form of the letter F, covered with copper and calculated for 5 years;
- Nova-T – device in the form of the letter T, covered with copper winding;
- CooperT 380 A – T-shaped spiral, designed for 6 years;
- Mirena is the most popular spiral to date, gradually releasing levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone into the uterine cavity, which has a contraceptive and therapeutic effect.
Mechanism of action
Intrauterine contraceptive has the following effects:
- death of spermatozoa that have penetrated the uterus due to the toxic effect of the metal;
- increasing the viscosity of cervical mucus due to the hormone, which prevents sperm;
- endometrial atrophy by levonorgestrel; ovulation and the effect of estrogen on the female body while preserving, and the menstruation becomes shorter, less wholly or often disappear;
- abortive action.
The abortive mechanism includes:
- active movement of the tubes and an immature egg entering the uterine cavity;
- the local inflammatory process in the endometrium, which prevents the embryo from attaching;
- activation of uterine contractions emitting an egg from the genital tract.
Pearl index for spirals with a copper content is 1-2, for Mirena system 0.2-0.5. Thus, this hormonal system is the best way for intrauterine contraception.