Blood donation is performed by collecting blood from a donor so that it can be used to treat another person.
In the USA, 40 million blood bags are collected per year, which corresponds to only 1.8% of the population donating blood.
Although this percentage is within the parameters of the World Health Organization (WHO), the institution seeks to increase this percentage by reducing the minimum age from 18 to 16 years (with the authorization of those responsible) and increasing the maximum age from 67 to 69 years.
Since June 14, 2005, WHO has celebrated World Blood Donor Day, which aims to raise awareness of the importance of the act and honor the volunteers who already practice the donation.
How important is it to donate blood?
Although science has made great strides and made many health discoveries, no substitute for human blood has yet been found. Therefore, when a person needs a blood transfusion, it can only count on the collaboration of volunteers.
There are many situations where a person may need a transfusion, such as:
- Patients suffering from car accidents;
- Patients with burns ;
- Anemic patients;
- Patients with blood clotting problems.
Transfusions are performed for several reasons; some of them are:
- Increase the blood’s ability to carry oxygen;
- Restore the body’s blood volume;
- Improve immunity;
- Correct coagulation disorders.
There are eight blood types divided into the population. In the tables below you can see how they are distributed and what kinds they can donate and receive from each other.
|Group A +||36%|
|Group O +||37%|
|Group B +||9%|
|Group O -||7%|
|A group -||6%|
|Group AB +||3%|
|Group B -||2%|
|Group AB -||1%|
Blood types in the population
Blood type You can receive from: You can donate to: THE A and O A and AB B B and OB Band AB Ab A, B, AB and O Ab O O A, B, AB and O
Related: Donate Blood if You Have HPV
Basic requirements for donation
There are some basic requirements to make a blood donation possible:
- Being in good general health;
- Be rested;
- Be between 16 * and 69 years, provided the first donation was made up to 60 years of age;
- Weigh more than 50kg;
- Be fed. It is essential to have a healthy diet before giving, so avoid fatty foods and after lunch, wait 2 hours to donate;
- Bear official document with photo;
- Respect the minimum interval between donations;
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle and do not take risky behavior.
* For persons under 18 years of age, an authorization form is required.
You can not donate blood if:
- You are under 16 years old or over 69 * years old;
- Weigh less than 50 kg;
- Have anemia in the test performed before donation;
- Is with hypertension or hypotension at the time of donation;
- Have a fever on the day of donation;
- You are pregnant;
- You are breastfeeding unless delivery has occurred for more than 12 months.
* The upper limit for the first donation is 60 years. Anyone who is 61 or older and has never donated is unfit.
The donor will not be able to carry out the procedure if accompanied by children under 13 years and without the presence of another adult to take care of them.
Read More: How to Get Rid of Rosacea Permanently?
Impediments to donate according to time
- If you have received vaccines prepared with dead or toxoid or recombinant viruses or bacteria (e.g., cholera, poliomyelitis (Salk), diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid, meningitis, pertussis, pneumococcus);
- If you received the flu vaccine.
For seven days
- If you have had diarrhea ;
- After the flu or cold symptoms end ;
- After curing of conjunctivitis ;
- If you have done a tooth extraction;
- If you did a canal treatment.
For two weeks
- After you finish the treatment of bacterial infections with the use of antibiotics ;
- After healing from rubella ;
- After healing of erysipelas.
For three weeks
- After curing of the mumps ;
- After curing the chicken pox ( chicken pox).
For four weeks
- If you have received a live or attenuated virus or bacteria vaccines. E.g., oral poliomyelitis (sabin), oral typhoid fever, mumps, yellow fever, measles, rubella, chickenpox, smallpox, and others;
- If you received anti-tetanus serum;
- After healing of dengue ;
- If you have undergone dental surgery under general anesthesia.
For eight weeks only for men
- After performing a blood donation. This period should be extended to 16 weeks if there was a double donation of erythrocytes by apheresis.
For twelve weeks only for women
- After a blood donation. This period should be extended to 24 weeks if there was a double donation of erythrocytes by apheresis;
- After childbirth or abortion.
For three months
If you have undergone surgeries such as appendectomy, hemorrhoidectomy, hernioplasty, resection of varicose veins, tonsillectomy.
For six months to one year
- If you have undergone a medium or large surgery, such as cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, thyroidectomy, colectomy, splenectomy post trauma, nephrectomy, among others;
- After cure of toxoplasmosis proven by laboratory tests;
- If you have had an endoscopic procedure, such as upper digestive endoscopy, colonoscopy, and rhinoscopy, you should wait six months;
- After the total disappearance of cold sores or genital herpes. In the case of Herpes Zoster (Varicella-Zoster virus), you can donate after 6 months of healing.
- If you have pierced your body with piercing (if the piercing is in the oral or genital cavity, due to the permanent risk of infection, it causes unfitness for 12 months after removal).
For twelve months
- If you have received a transfusion of blood, plasma, platelets or blood products;
- If you received a skin graft;
- If you had an accident that there was contamination with the blood of another person;
- If you have ever shared needles with other people;
- If you have had sexual intercourse with one or more unknown or potential partners without the use of condoms;
- If you have had sexual contact with someone who has been tested positive for HIV ;
- If you have had contact with people who have received or paid for the sexual act using money or drugs;
- If you have had sexual contact with an intravenous drug user;
- If you have had sexual contact with a person who has received a blood transfusion in the past 12 months;
- If you have had sexual intercourse with people with hepatitis ;
- If you have a definitive tattoo or makeup;
- If you have had syphilis or gonorrhea ;
- If you have been detained for more than 24 hours.
For five years
After curing of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Read More: Does Xarelto Make You Tired?
- Positive results for blood-borne diseases such as Hepatitis B and C, AIDS (HIV), HTLV I and II virus diseases and Chagas disease ;
- Had hepatitis after 10 years of age;
- Already had malaria ;
- He received a dura mater graft;
- Had some cancer, including leukemia ;
- If you have severe heart, lung, kidney, or liver problems;
- If you have problems with blood clotting;
- If you have diabetes with vascular complications or are taking insulin;
- If you had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis ;
- If you have had elephantiasis, leprosy, kala-azar ( visceral leishmaniasis ), or brucellosis ;
- If you have ever had hepatosplenic schistosomiasis ;
- If you have any illness that you are not able to answer for yourself (legal disqualification);
- If you have undergone organ or bone marrow transplantation.
Who has HPV can donate blood?
Yes. Although HPV is sexually transmitted, it does not prevent the donation of blood.
STDs that prevent blood donation are Syphilis, HIV, and Hepatitis B and C.
What is the immunological window?
The immunological window corresponds to the period that the organism is already infected by some disease, but does not yet produce sufficient antibodies to be detected in the serological screening tests.
The incubation time varies according to the disease, so even if you do not show the symptoms, you may be prevented from donating.
In the weeks before the donation, try to insert a reasonable amount of iron into your diets, such as meats and seafood. You can also find the iron source in foods like beans, vegetables, some types of bread and fruits.
To avoid weakness, take a minimum rest of 6 hours the night before and do not consume anything alcoholic for 24 hours before donation. On the day, avoid smoking for at least two hours and try to eat and drink healthily. Never give away fasting blood as this will keep you from feeling faint or dizzy after giving.
It is necessary to prevent certain activities at least 12 hours before donation, such as driving buses and other large vehicles, flying planes or helicopters, playing sports such as skydiving or diving and climbing on scaffolding.
Also, try to wear comfortable clothes that can be easily folded. If necessary, take a list of all the medicines you use on a day-to-day basis. Remembering that there is no restriction on the use of contraceptives or common remedies such as mild painkillers, but you should contact the blood bank to confirm the possibility of donation.
How is the procedure performed?
The process of blood donation is usually divided into four stages:
- Entrance on site.
- Medical history and mini-physical examination.
Every procedure takes about an hour.
1. On-site entry
At this first moment, you will fill some roles with your personal information such as name, address, phone number and some questions about your daily routine.
2. Medical history and mini-physical examination
After filling out the papers, based on your answers, a doctor will ask you some questions about your physical health and your lifestyle.
Then a mini-physical exam will be done to measure your pulse, blood pressure, and temperature. The doctor will also take a bite on your finger to measure your blood iron level and make sure it is safe for you to do the transfusion.
At this time, when the contribution takes place, you will lie down on a stretcher, and a doctor will prepare you for what is the best arm for drawing blood from the exposed veins. After cleaning the site, a sterile needle will be inserted into your vein. It only takes a few seconds, and you may feel a quick little sting.
About a quart of blood will be taken from you, and the process should take less than 10 minutes. After the needle is withdrawn, the caregiver will make dressing on the spot.
Soon after donation, it is recommended that you remain on site for observation for about 15 minutes. At that time, a snack will be offered so that you can recover some fluids that you lost during the donation.
Care after donation
After the donation, you should wait for 15 minutes before being released. Drink plenty of fluids and be careful not to smoke for at least two hours after the procedure.
During the day, try to avoid strenuous exercise, such as climbing ramps and stairs, or even going to the gym, as there may be a risk of feeling weak, dizzy, and even fainting.
Be careful not to use the arm where the collection was carried out since the effort with it could cause bleeding or even bruising.
Keep the dressing on site for at least four hours. If bleeding occurs, press the site for a few minutes and replace the bandage.
If you feel uncomfortable and prefer that your blood not be used for donations, you can go to the donation site and ask for blood to be discarded.
During blood donation and up to 24 hours after the procedure, you may notice some adverse reactions related to poor diet, poor sleep, anxiety, and stress, such as:
- Tingling of hands and feet;
- Visual turbidity;
- Feeling of fainting, causing, also, rare pictures of convulsions ;
- Hematoma at the needle site.
What is done with the donated blood?
The blood is separated into blood components such as red blood cells, platelet concentrate, and fresh plasma and undergoes several laboratory tests to see if it is suitable for use. These tests are:
- Blood typing, serology and NAT (nucleic acid test) for hepatitis Cand HIV (AIDS virus);
- Serology for hepatitis B, Chagas disease, syphilis, and HTLV.
Soon after the initial screening, after being proven suitable for use, the collected blood is sent to hospitals to be used in patients in need, such as those facing bleeding, those who undergo chemotherapy and in cases of surgeries and transplants.
Plasma that is not used can be sent to Hemobrás, which is an industry producing medicines for people who are carriers of hemorrhagic diseases.
If any examination is changed, will I be notified?
Yes. If there is a change in the test results, a letter will be sent to your residence requesting that you go to the place where you donated blood to collect a new sample and receive medical advice.
It is vital that you do not fail to attend the site because, in addition to clarifying any questions you may have, the doctor will explain how the test results work in the tests and that they can exist for several reasons, not necessarily that there is a disease.
Blood volume collected in donations
The amount of blood collection is equal for men and women and is around 405 to 495 mL.
The does not interfere with human health because less than 10% of an adult’s total blood volume is removed. The amount of donated blood is replenished naturally by your body.
The frequency of donation who determines is the donor, so nothing prevents the decision to donate only once a year or even once in life. But if you want to become a frequent donor, there is an interval that must be respected:
- For men, the interval should be 60 days, counting 4 donations per year.
- For women, the interval is 90 days, counting 3 donations per year.
The difference between men and women is due to the replacement of the iron stock being more time-consuming in the female body because of the menstrual cycles.
Blood donation and medical certificate
If you deem it necessary, you can request a medical certificate from the place where you donated blood. Companies are required by law to accept the document at least one day of the year.
Benefits for blood donors
While any trade with donated blood is prohibited as it understands that the action must be voluntary, there are some benefits granted to a regular donor with the intention of stimulating the activity of giving.
In addition to the medical certificate guarantee for at least one day of the year without salary discounts, you can get discount tickets for shows, cinemas, theaters and other events with the presentation of the donor card.
With Blood donation, in addition to helping four people, you will feel extremely good about yourself after you perform such a handsome and generous gesture!Share with your friends so they know the importance of giving and become a donor!